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Two versions of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), one with religious content (RCT) and one with standard protocol (NRCT), were used to treat 19-20 religious patients each. Fifty-nine religious patients who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria for nonpsychotic, nonbipolar depression were treated in 18-20 1-hr sessions over 3 months. Religious and(More)
Cardiac fibroblasts produce and degrade extracellular matrix and are critical in regulating cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) play a fundamental role in the development of tissue fibrosis by stimulating matrix deposition and other profibrotic responses, but less is known about pathways that(More)
1. As initially shown by Seamon and Daly, the diterpene forskolin directly activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) and raises cyclic AMP levels in a wide variety of cell types. In this review, we discuss several aspects of forskolin action that are often unappreciated. These include the utility of labeled forskolin as a means to quantitate the number of AC(More)
Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) control cellular functions by transducing signals from the outside to the inside of cells. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are key modulators of the amplitude and duration of G protein-mediated signaling through their ability to serve as guanosine triphosphatase-activating proteins (GAPs). We(More)
We investigated the contractile roles of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in urinary bladder from streptozotocin-treated mice. Wild-type and M2 muscarinic receptor knockout (M2 KO) mice were given a single injection of vehicle or streptozotocin (125 mg kg(-1)) 2-24 weeks prior to bladder assays. The effect of forskolin on contractions elicited to the(More)
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms are implicated in several physiologic processes and disease states, but advancements in the therapeutic targeting of AC isoforms have been limited by the lack of potent and isoform-selective small-molecule modulators. The discovery of AC isoform-selective small molecules is expected to facilitate the validation of AC isoforms(More)
Adenylyl cyclases are a ubiquitous family of enzymes and are critical regulators of metabolic and cardiovascular function. Multiple isoforms of the enzyme are expressed in a range of tissues. However, for many processes, the adenylyl cyclase isoforms have been thought of as essentially interchangeable, with their impact more dependent on their common(More)
Muscarinic receptors are expressed in smooth muscle throughout the body. In most instances, the muscarinic receptor population in smooth muscle is composed of mainly the M2 and M3 subtypes in an 80% to 20% mixture. The M3 subtype mediates phosphoinositide hydrolysis and calcium mobilization, whereas the M2 subtype mediates an inhibition of cAMP(More)
The ability of the M2 muscarinic receptor to mediate an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin and isoproterenol was investigated in guinea pig ileum and trachea. In some experiments, trachea was first treated with 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) mustard to inactivate M3 receptors. The contractile response to oxotremorine-M was(More)
Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interaction with the G-protein coupled membrane bound melatonin receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2, respectively) or, indirectly with nuclear orphan receptors from the RORα/RZR family. Melatonin also binds to the quinone reductase II enzyme, previously defined the MT3 receptor. Melatonin receptors are(More)