Rennolds S. Ostrom

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Recent evidence suggests that many signaling molecules localize in microdomains of the plasma membrane, particularly caveolae. In this study, overexpression of adenylyl cyclase was used as a functional probe of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) compartmentation. We found that three endogenous receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes couple with different(More)
The many components of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signal transduction provide cells with numerous combinations with which to customize their responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, and pharmacologic agonists. GPCRs function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors for heterotrimeric (alpha, beta, gamma) G proteins, thereby promoting exchange of GTP(More)
Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interaction with the G-protein coupled membrane bound melatonin receptors type 1 and type 2 (MT1 and MT2, respectively) or, indirectly with nuclear orphan receptors from the RORα/RZR family. Melatonin also binds to the quinone reductase II enzyme, previously defined the MT3 receptor. Melatonin receptors are(More)
Pulmonary fibroblasts are recruited to sites of lung injury, where they are activated to produce extracellular matrix proteins and to facilitate repair. However, these cells become dysregulated in pulmonary fibrosis, producing excess collagen at sites of injury and forming fibrotic loci that impair lung function. In this study, we used WI-38 human lung(More)
There is great therapeutic interest in manipulating (either enhancing or suppressing) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signal transduction. However, most current strategies are limited to pharmacological activation or blockade of receptors. Human gene therapy, including both overexpression and antisense approaches, may allow manipulation of GPCR signaling(More)
The determinants of "basal" activity of signaling pathways regulating cellular responses are poorly defined. One possibility is that cells release factors to establish the set-point of such pathways. Here we show that treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with the nucleotidase apyrase decreases basal arachidonic acid release and cAMP production(More)
A number of different agonists activate G protein-coupled receptors to stimulate adenylyl cyclase (AC), increase cAMP formation, and promote relaxation in vascular smooth muscle. To more fully understand this stimulation of AC, we assessed the expression, regulation, and compartmentation of AC isoforms in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). Reverse(More)
Cardiac fibroblasts produce and degrade extracellular matrix and are critical in regulating cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy. Cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) play a fundamental role in the development of tissue fibrosis by stimulating matrix deposition and other profibrotic responses, but less is known about pathways that(More)
We investigated the effect of adenovirally mediated overexpression of adenylyl cyclase type 6 (AC6), a major form of AC expressed in mammalian heart, on G protein-coupled receptor regulation of cAMP production in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Following gene transfer of AC6, isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated increases in cAMP were markedly(More)
1. As initially shown by Seamon and Daly, the diterpene forskolin directly activates adenylyl cyclase (AC) and raises cyclic AMP levels in a wide variety of cell types. In this review, we discuss several aspects of forskolin action that are often unappreciated. These include the utility of labeled forskolin as a means to quantitate the number of AC(More)