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1. In the retina, two distinct, light-evoked releases of K+ have been described. One takes place in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and is termed the "distal K+ increase." The other takes place in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and is termed the "proximal K+ increase." Although the distal K+ increase generates the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave, the(More)
1. Extracellular pH (pHo) was measured in the isolated retina preparation of the toad, Bufo marinus, using H(+)-selective microelectrodes. During superfusion with phosphate-buffered solution (pH 7.8), which had a low buffering capacity, pHo in the inner retina was 7.0-7.2 and there was a pHo gradient throughout the distal retina and into the bathing(More)
A method for fabricating double-barrel, ion-selective microelectrodes with fine tips (0.5-1.5 microns) and rapid response times is described. When made into K(+)-selective microelectrodes, the electrodes respond to changes in [K+]o with a time constant of 70-95 ms. The electrical response of these electrodes to common-mode voltages can be made to have a(More)
We tested the hypothesis that a light-evoked increase in [K+]o produces a depolarization of the Müller cell membrane, which in turn generates the electroretinogram b-wave current. Using Bufo marinus isolated retinas and K(+)-selective microelectrodes, we recorded two distinct light-evoked increases in extracellular K+ concentration: one in the inner(More)
The Lower Jurassic Tilje Formation on the Halten Terrace, offshore mid-Norway, forms an important reservoir in a number of hydrocarbon fields. A high volume fraction (80 percent) of the formation is heterolithic in nature, showing various styles of sandstone-mudstone intercalated bedding at several scales. The depositional model is based on a general facies(More)
eological models are usually used qualitatively in seismic interpretation. This paper illustrates that quantitative representations of detailed geological models can significantly enhance seismic attribute interpretation through facies classification. When applying seismic attribute classification to reservoir facies mapping, one often faces such typical(More)
In biological preparations, measurements of rapid, stimulus-evoked changes in ion concentration by ion-selective microelectrodes can be distorted by the limited bandwidth of these sensors. Techniques were developed to reconstruct the actual change in ion concentration using deconvolution of the electrode's output signal and the electrode's transfer(More)
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