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Annual plants complete their life cycle in one year and initiate flowering only once, whereas perennials live for many years and flower repeatedly. How perennials undergo repeated cycles of vegetative growth and flowering that are synchronized to the changing seasons has not been extensively studied. Flowering is best understood in annual Arabidopsis(More)
Perennial plants live for more than 1 year and flower only after an extended vegetative phase. We used Arabis alpina, a perennial relative of annual Arabidopsis thaliana, to study how increasing age and exposure to winter cold (vernalization) coordinate to establish competence to flower. We show that the APETALA2 transcription factor, a target of microRNA(More)
Flowering of many plants is induced by environmental signals, but these responses can depend on the age of the plant. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to vernalization (winter temperatures) at germination induces flowering, whereas a close perennial relative Arabis alpina only responds if exposed when at least 5 weeks old. We show that vernalization of(More)
Higher plants exhibit a variety of different life histories. Annual plants live for less than a year and after flowering produce seeds and senesce. By contrast perennials live for many years, dividing their life cycle into episodes of vegetative growth and flowering. Environmental cues control key check points in both life histories. Genes controlling(More)
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