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The high mobility group protein A2 (HMGA2) has been demonstrated as an architectural transcription factor that is associated with pathogenesis of many malignant cancers; however, its role in prostate cancer cells remains largely unknown. To explore whether HMGA2 participates in the development and progression of prostate cancer, small interfering RNA(More)
BACKGROUND Co-stimulatory molecules are pivotal for T cell activation. It is increasingly recognized that programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a novel co-stimulatory molecule, which raises the question as to whether PD-L1 regulates T cell responses. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of PD-L1 on T cell activation. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
The high-mobility group protein A2 (HMGA2) is an architectural transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the development and progression of various malignant cancers. However, the function of HMGA2 in bladder cancer remains largely unknown. Therefore, we aim to investigate the effect of HMGA2 on the proliferation, migration, invasion, and(More)
BACKGROUND Remote ischemic perconditioning (RIPerC), remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC), and remote ischemic perconditioning + postconditioning (RIPerC + RIPostC) protect against renal ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). However, the most beneficial approach among these is not known. AIMS To compare the protective effects and study the mechanisms(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is known to play a pivotal role in a diverse range of biological systems including modulation of fibrosis in several organs. The precise role of TGF-β/Smad signaling in the progression of bladder fibrosis secondary to partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO) is yet to be conclusively. Using a rat PBOO model, we(More)
Rheological properties of aqueous solution containing xanthan gum (XG) and cationic cellulose JR400 were investigated at different composition ratio, shear rate, pH and electrolyte concentrations. It was found that the mixing of XG and JR400 can induce a viscosity-increasing effect for the mixed solution. As the concentration fraction (f(JR)) of JR400 in(More)
Cripto-1 (CR-1) is a member of the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-1/FRL1/Cryptic gene family that plays a key role in the various malignant cancers. However, the role of CR-1 in prostate carcinoma (PCa) remains limited. The expression of CR-1 was down-regulated by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Western blot measured the expression levels of CR-1 and some(More)
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