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The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. Constitutive NF-κB activation by the viral oncoprotein Tax plays a crucial role in the induction and maintenance of cellular proliferation, transformation, and inhibition of(More)
Human T-cell Leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are pathogenic retroviruses that infect humans and cause severe hematological and neurological diseases. Both viruses have simian counterparts (STLV-1 and STLV-2). STLV-3 belongs to a third group of lymphotropic viruses which infect numerous African monkeys species. Among 240 Cameroonian plasma(More)
A recent serological and molecular survey of a semifree-ranging colony of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) living in Gabon, central Africa, indicated that 6 of 102 animals, all males, were infected with simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (STLV-1). These animals naturally live in the same forest area as do human inhabitants (mostly Pygmies) who are(More)
We and others have recently uncovered the existence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3), the third member of the HTLV family. We have now sequenced the full-length HTLV-3Pyl43 provirus. As expected, HTLV-3Pyl43 contains open reading frames corresponding to the gag, pol, env, tax, and rex genes. Interestingly, its long terminal repeat (LTR)(More)
The Tax oncoprotein plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T lymphocytes through various mechanisms, including activation of the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway. We found that cytoplasmic ubiquitylation of Tax C-terminal lysines is critical for Tax binding to the IkappaB kinase(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) but not HTLV-2 is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and the distinct pathogenicity of these two closely related viruses is thought to stem from the distinct biological functions of the respective transforming proteins, HTLV-1 Tax1 and HTLV-2 Tax2. In this study, we demonstrate that Tax1 but not Tax2 interacts(More)
Using stringent Western blot (WB) criteria, human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type I seroprevalence among 3783 persons from representative rural populations of Cameroon averaged 1.1% and was higher in females (1.5%) and in Pygmies (2.0%), increasing with age. Furthermore, an HTLV-I Gag-indeterminate WB profile (HGIP), exhibiting strong reactivities to(More)
p53 plays a pivotal role in transmitting signals from many forms of genotoxic stress to genes and factors that control the cell cycle and apoptosis. We have previously shown that the human T-lymphotropic virus type I Tax protein can inhibit p53 function. Recently we reported that Tax inhibits p53 function in Jurkat cells and mouse embryo fibroblasts through(More)
A search for human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 and related viruses was performed by serological and molecular means on samples obtained from 421 adult villagers from the southern Cameroon forest areas. One individual (a 56-year-old Baka Pygmy hunter) was found to be HTLV-3 infected; however, there was a low proviral load in blood cells.(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1/2) are related retroviruses that infect T-lymphocytes. Whereas HTLV-1 infection can cause leukemia, HTLV-2 has not been demonstrated to be the agent of a hematological malignant disease. Nevertheless, the virally encoded Tax-1 and Tax-2 transactivators display a high percentage of similarity. Tax-1 is a(More)