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In 1980, Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. HTLV-1 belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and to the deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4(+) lymphoid cells in vivo. Three molecules have been identified for binding and/or entry of(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein has been reported to transactivate several cellular genes, including the potent chemotactic factor interleukin-8 (IL-8). Consistent with these in vitro assays, elevated levels of IL-8 protein are found in the serum of HIV-infected individuals. We now extend these observations by demonstrating that(More)
Human T-cell Leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) are pathogenic retroviruses that infect humans and cause severe hematological and neurological diseases. Both viruses have simian counterparts (STLV-1 and STLV-2). STLV-3 belongs to a third group of lymphotropic viruses which infect numerous African monkeys species. Among 240 Cameroonian plasma(More)
Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is a major survival pathway engaged by the Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein. Tax1 activation of NF-kappaB occurs predominantly in the cytoplasm, where Tax1 binds NF-kappaB Essential Modulator (NEMO/IKKgamma) and triggers the activation of IkappaB kinases. Several independent studies have shown that(More)
Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiological agent of adult T-cell lymphocytic leukemia (ATLL), whereas HTLV-II has not been associated with hematopoietic malignancies. The control of apoptotic pathways has emerged as a critical step in the development of many cancer types. As a result, the underlying mechanism of long-term survival of(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent for adult T-cell leukemia and the neurological disorder tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. CD4+ T lymphocytes, the primary hosts for HTLV-I, undergo a series of changes that lead to T-cell activation, immortalization, and transformation. To gain insight into the(More)
Approximately 3% of all human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected persons will develop a disabling inflammatory disease of the central nervous system known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, against which there is currently no efficient treatment. As correlation exists between the proviral load (PVL) and the clinical(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called(More)
Interferon induced transmembrane proteins 1, 2 and 3 (IFITMs) belong to a family of highly related antiviral factors that have been shown to interfere with a large spectrum of viruses including Filoviruses, Coronaviruses, Influenza virus, Dengue virus and HIV-1. In all these cases, the reported mechanism of antiviral inhibition indicates that the pool of(More)
A search for human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 and related viruses was performed by serological and molecular means on samples obtained from 421 adult villagers from the southern Cameroon forest areas. One individual (a 56-year-old Baka Pygmy hunter) was found to be HTLV-3 infected; however, there was a low proviral load in blood cells.(More)