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Annotated logics were introduced by V. S. Subrahma-nian as logical foundations for computer programming. One of the difficulties of these systems from the logical point of view is that they are not structural, i.e., their consequence relations are not closed under substitutions. In this paper we give systems of annotated logics that are equivalent to those(More)
We introduce a deductive system Bal which models the logic of balance of opposing forces or of balance between conflicting evidence or influences. " Truth values " are interpreted as deviations From a state of equilibrium, so in this sense, the theorems of Bal are to be interpreted as balanced statements, for which reason there is only one distinguished(More)