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Working memory dysfunction is a prominent impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Our aim was to determine cerebral dysfunctions by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of first-episode schizophrenia patients during a working memory task. 75 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 81 control subjects, recruited within(More)
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrasts represent different physiological measures of brain activation. The present study aimed to compare two functional brain imaging techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging versus [(15)O] positron emission tomography) when using Tower of London (TOL) problems as(More)
The Neuregulin (NRG1) gene has been associated with schizophrenia, but its functional implications are largely unknown. Our aim was to assess differential brain activation between patients carrying an at-risk allele on the Neuregulin 1 gene and patients without this genetic risk. Neural signal changes between 14 first episode schizophrenia patients with the(More)
The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography has provided novel insights into the neural correlates of cognitive function and psychopathological symptoms. In patients with mental disorders, cognitive and emotional processes are disrupted. In this chapter, we review the basic methodological and conceptual principles(More)
Due to its three-dimensional folding pattern, the human neocortex poses a challenge for accurate co-registration of grouped functional brain imaging data. The present study addressed this problem by employing three-dimensional continuum-mechanical image-warping techniques to derive average anatomical representations for co-registration of functional(More)
Cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated in memory and attention. We investigated the effect of the non-competitive nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine on three components of attention processes (i.e. alerting, orienting and executive control) in 12 healthy male subjects whilst performing the Attention Network Task (ANT) in a magnetic resonance(More)
The cholinergic system is essential in mediating cognitive processes. Although there has been extensive research regarding cholinergic receptor subsystems, the specific contribution of the muscarinic and nicotinic receptor system to cognitive processes still has not been sufficiently explored. In the present study, we examined the selective contribution of(More)
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a pre-attentive event-related potential measure of echoic memory. However, recent studies suggest attention-related modulation of MMN. This study investigates duration-elicited MMN in healthy subjects (n = 12) who were performing a visual discrimination task and, subsequently, an auditory discrimination task in a series of(More)
Acetylcholine plays a major role in mediating attention processes. We investigated the muscarinic antagonist effect of scopolamine on functional neuro-anatomy of attention and cognition. We assessed 12 healthy volunteers while performing the Attention Network Task on 0.4 mg scopolamine and placebo in a single-blind randomized trial in a 1.5 T magnetic(More)
Attributions are constantly assigned in everyday life. A well-known phenomenon is the self-serving bias: that is, people's tendency to attribute positive events to internal causes (themselves) and negative events to external causes (other persons/circumstances). Here, we investigated the neural correlates of the cognitive processes implicated in(More)