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Cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated in memory and attention. We investigated the effect of the non-competitive nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine on three components of attention processes (i.e. alerting, orienting and executive control) in 12 healthy male subjects whilst performing the Attention Network Task (ANT) in a magnetic resonance(More)
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrasts represent different physiological measures of brain activation. The present study aimed to compare two functional brain imaging techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging versus [(15)O] positron emission tomography) when using Tower of London (TOL) problems as(More)
Working memory dysfunction is a prominent impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Our aim was to determine cerebral dysfunctions by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of first-episode schizophrenia patients during a working memory task. 75 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 81 control subjects, recruited within(More)
Due to its three-dimensional folding pattern, the human neocortex poses a challenge for accurate co-registration of grouped functional brain imaging data. The present study addressed this problem by employing three-dimensional continuum-mechanical image-warping techniques to derive average anatomical representations for co-registration of functional(More)
Cognitive training is an important aim of treatment for patients with schizophrenia. However, computer-based cognitive training is still not widely used, and there are reservations concerning the use of computers in psychiatric treatment. In a multicentre study, 64 patients with schizophrenia were investigated before and after completing a 5-week course of(More)
The Neuregulin (NRG1) gene has been associated with schizophrenia, but its functional implications are largely unknown. Our aim was to assess differential brain activation between patients carrying an at-risk allele on the Neuregulin 1 gene and patients without this genetic risk. Neural signal changes between 14 first episode schizophrenia patients with the(More)
The cholinergic system is essential in mediating cognitive processes. Although there has been extensive research regarding cholinergic receptor subsystems, the specific contribution of the muscarinic and nicotinic receptor system to cognitive processes still has not been sufficiently explored. In the present study, we examined the selective contribution of(More)
Acetylcholine plays a major role in mediating attention processes. We investigated the muscarinic antagonist effect of scopolamine on functional neuro-anatomy of attention and cognition. We assessed 12 healthy volunteers while performing the Attention Network Task on 0.4 mg scopolamine and placebo in a single-blind randomized trial in a 1.5 T magnetic(More)
The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography has provided novel insights into the neural correlates of cognitive function and psychopathological symptoms. In patients with mental disorders, cognitive and emotional processes are disrupted. In this chapter, we review the basic methodological and conceptual principles(More)
22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with a number of physical anomalies and neuropsychological deficits including impairments in executive and sensorimotor function. It is estimated that 25% of children with 22q11DS will develop schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders later in life. Evidence of genetic transmission of information(More)