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CONTEXT A substantial proportion of people at clinical high risk (HR) of psychosis will develop a psychotic disorder over time. Cognitive deficits may predate the onset of psychosis and may be useful as markers of increased vulnerability to illness. OBJECTIVE To quantitatively examine the cognitive functioning in subjects at HR in the literature to date.(More)
BACKGROUND Although individuals vulnerable to psychosis show brain volumetric abnormalities, structural alterations underlying different probabilities for later transition are unknown. The present study addresses this issue by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). METHOD We investigated grey matter volume (GMV) abnormalities by comparing four(More)
CONTEXT Antipsychotic treatment is the first-line treatment option for schizophrenia. Individual studies suggested they can significantly affect brain structure and account for progressive brain changes observed during the illness. OBJECTIVES To quantitatively examine the effect of antipsychotics as compared to illness related factors on progressive brain(More)
OBJECTIVES In early stage psychosis research the identification of neurobiological correlates of vulnerability to schizophrenia is an important hurdle. METHODS We systematically reviewed the neuroimaging publications on high-risk subjects with subsequent transition to psychosis (HR-T) and conducted a meta-analysis calculating the effect size Cohen's d. (More)
OBJECTIVES Neurofunctional alterations are correlates of vulnerability to psychosis, as well as of the disorder itself. How these abnormalities relate to different probabilities for later transition to psychosis is unclear. We investigated vulnerability- versus disease-related versus resilience biomarkers of psychosis during working memory (WM) processing(More)
BACKGROUND The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism (refSNP Cluster Report: rs6265) is a common and functionally relevant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The gene itself, as well as the SNP rs6265, have been implicated in hippocampal learning and memory. However, imaging genetic studies have produced controversial results(More)
OBJECTIVES To address at a meta-analytical level the neuroanatomical markers of genetic liability to psychosis and a of first episode of psychosis. METHODS Fifteen voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies of antipsychotic-naive subjects at genetic high-risk (HR) for psychosis or with a first-episode psychosis (FEP) were included in a Signed Differential(More)
BACKGROUND Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin involved in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Its Val66Met polymorphism (refSNP Cluster Report: rs6265) is a functionally relevant single(More)
BACKGROUND Deficits in motivational salience processing have been related to psychotic symptoms and disturbances in dopaminergic neurotransmission. We aimed at exploring changes in salience processing and brain activity during different stages of psychosis and antipsychotic medication effect. METHODS We used fMRI during the Salience Attribution Task to(More)
Impairments in inhibitory control and in stimulus-driven attention are hallmarks of drug addiction and are associated with decreased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Although previous studies indicate that the response inhibition function is impaired in abstinent heroin dependents, and that this is mediated by reduced IFG activity, it(More)