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The human brain is often considered to be the most cognitively capable among mammalian brains and to be much larger than expected for a mammal of our body size. Although the number of neurons is generally assumed to be a determinant of computational power, and despite the widespread quotes that the human brain contains 100 billion neurons and ten times more(More)
Alzheimer's disease is the commonest cause of dementia in the elderly, but its pathological determinants are still debated. Amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have been implicated either directly as disruptors of neural function, or indirectly by precipitating neuronal death and thus causing a reduction in neuronal number. Alternatively, the(More)
In spite of considerable technical advance in MRI techniques, the optical resolution of these methods are still limited. Consequently, the delineation of cytoarchitectonic fields based on probabilistic maps and brain volume changes, as well as small-scale changes seen in MRI scans need to be verified by neuronanatomical/neuropathological diagnostic tools.(More)
BACKGROUND Apathy is the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it is associated with changes in prefrontal neural circuits involved with generation of voluntary actions. To date no effective treatment for apathy has been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE We aimed to investigate the effects and safety of repetitive transcranial direct(More)
Sex differences in the human olfactory function reportedly exist for olfactory sensitivity, odorant identification and memory, and tasks in which odors are rated based on psychological features such as familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and others. Which might be the neural bases for these behavioral differences? The number of cells in olfactory regions,(More)
Neurons are highly polarized cells in which asymmetric axonal-dendritic distribution of proteins is crucial for neuronal function. Loss of polarized distribution of the axonal protein tau is an early sign of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The cytoskeletal network in the axon initial segment (AIS) forms a barrier between the(More)
The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a clinicopathologic study in a large population with very low levels of education to determine whether very few years of education could contribute to cognitive reserve and modify the relation of neuropathologic indices to dementia. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we included 675 individuals 50 years of age or older from the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Previous ultrasound-based studies have shown an association between carotid artery atherosclerosis and dementia. Our aim was to investigate this association using postmortem examination. METHODS Postmortem morphometric measurements of carotid stenosis and intima-media thickness were performed in individuals with dementia (n=112) and(More)
Despite a massive research effort to elucidate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in recent decades, effective treatment remains elusive. This failure may relate to an oversimplification of the pathogenic processes underlying AD and also lack of understanding of AD progression during its long latent stages. Although evidence shows that the two specific(More)