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BACKGROUND No pharmacologic therapy has conclusively proved to be effective for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is characterized by insulin resistance, steatosis, and necroinflammation with or without centrilobular fibrosis. Pioglitazone is a thiazolidinedione that ameliorates insulin resistance and improves glucose and lipid metabolism(More)
CONTEXT Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist widely used in clinical practice, but its mechanism of action is incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to assess whether improvement in subclinical inflammation or glucose metabolism contributes to its antiatherogenic effects in insulin-resistant(More)
Acute elevations in free fatty acids (FFAs) stimulate insulin secretion, but prolonged lipid exposure impairs beta-cell function in both in vitro studies and in vivo animal studies. In humans data are limited to short-term (< or =48 h) lipid infusion studies and have led to conflicting results. We examined insulin secretion and action during a 4-day lipid(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The recent discovery of two adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the insulin-sensitising effect of adiponectin. The aim of this study was to determine for the first time whether skeletal muscle AdipoR1 and/or AdipoR2 gene expression levels are associated with(More)
The dose-response relationship between elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels and impaired insulin-mediated glucose disposal and insulin signaling was examined in 21 lean, healthy, normal glucose-tolerant subjects. Following a 4-h saline or Liposyn infusion at 30 (n = 9), 60 (n = 6), and 90 (n = 6) ml/h, subjects received a 2-h euglycemic insulin (40(More)
Exercise training improves insulin sensitivity in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. The present study was undertaken to determine how improved insulin signaling, GLUT4 expression, and glycogen synthase activity contribute to this improvement. Euglycemic clamps with indirect calorimetry and(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) is a chronic liver disease frequently associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone reverses the metabolic and histological abnormalities of patients with impaired glucose tolerance or T2DM and NASH, but also leads to weight gain. To understand the nature of weight(More)
Oversupply and underutilization of lipid fuels are widely recognized to be strongly associated with insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Recent attention has focused on the mechanisms underlying this effect, and defects in mitochondrial function have emerged as a potential player in this scheme. Because evidence indicates that lipid oversupply can produce(More)
Muscle insulin resistance develops when plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are acutely increased to supraphysiological levels (approximately 1,500-4,000 micromol/l). However, plasma FFA levels >1,000 micromol/l are rarely observed in humans under usual living conditions, and it is unknown whether insulin action may be impaired during a sustained but(More)
Thiazolidinediones have gained widespread use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and other insulin resistance states, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In thiazolidinedione-treated patients a small reduction in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels often is observed, and this generally has been attributed to fluid retention. Because(More)