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Glycine-proline-glutamate (GPE) is an N-terminal tripeptide endogenously cleaved from insulin-like growth factor-1 in the brain and is neuroprotective against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and neurodegeneration. NNZ-2566 is an analog of GPE designed to have improved bioavailability. In this study, we tested NNZ-2566 in a rat model of penetrating(More)
Lithium, the major drug used to treat manic depressive illness, robustly protects cultured rat brain neurons from glutamate excitotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The lithium neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxiciy is long-lasting, requires long-term pretreatment and occurs at therapeutic concentrations of this drug. The(More)
Lithium has long been a primary drug used to treat bipolar mood disorder, even though the drug's therapeutic mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies demonstrate that lithium has neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in cultured neurons and in vivo. The present study was undertaken to examine whether postinsult treatment with(More)
In rat cerebellar granule cells, glutamate induced rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase to phosphorylate c-Jun (at Ser63) and p53 (at Ser15), respectively, and a subsequent marked increase in activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding that preceded apoptotic death. These glutamate-induced effects and apoptosis could largely be prevented(More)
Cellular and molecular pathways underlying ischemic neurotoxicity are multifaceted and complex. Although many potentially neuroprotective agents have been investigated, the simplicity of their protective mechanisms has often resulted in insufficient clinical utility. We describe a previously uncharacterized class of potent neuroprotective compounds,(More)
Acute seizures following brain injury have been associated with a worsening of patient outcome, but they are often undiagnosed and untreated when they occur without motor convulsions. Here, we sought to compare the antiseizure profile of ethosuximide (EXM; 125-312.5 mg/kg i.v.) and gabapentin (GBP; 0.3-50 mg/kg. i.v.) in a rat model of nonconvulsive(More)
In an earlier study, we demonstrated that PAN-811 (3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone), a novel neuroprotectant, provides protection against glutamate, staurosporine, veratridine, or hypoxia/hypoglycemia toxicities in primary cortical neuronal cultures by upregulating Bcl-2 expression [R.-W. Chen, C. Yao, X.C. Lu, Z.-G. Jiang, R. Whipple, Z.(More)
Cell cycle reentry has been found during apoptosis of postmitotic neurons under certain pathological conditions. To evaluate whether nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation promotes cell cycle entry and neuronal apoptosis, we studied the relation among NF-kappaB-mediated cyclin induction, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, and apoptosis initiation(More)
Cellular injury can involve the aberrant stimulation of cell cycle proteins in part through activation of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and downstream expression of cell-cycle components such as cyclin D1. In mature non-proliferating cells activation of the cell cycle can lead to the induction of programmed cell death. In the present study, we investigated the(More)
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