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This paper presents a camera that samples the 4D light field on its sensor in a single photographic exposure. This is achieved by inserting a microlens array between the sensor and main lens, creating a plenoptic camera. Each microlens measures not just the total amount of light deposited at that location, but how much light arrives along each ray. By(More)
We describe Chromium, a system for manipulating streams of graphics API commands on clusters of workstations. Chromium's stream filters can be arranged to create sort-first and sort-last parallel graphics architectures that, in many cases, support the same applications while using only commodity graphics accelerators. In addition, these stream filters can(More)
This paper contributes to the theory of photograph formation from light fields. The main result is a theorem that, in the Fourier domain, a photograph formed by a full lens aperture is a 2D slice in the 4D light field. Photographs focused at different depths correspond to slices at different trajectories in the 4D space. The paper demonstrates the utility(More)
We present a method, based on pre-computed light transport, for real-time rendering of objects under all-frequency, time-varying illumination represented as a high-resolution environment map. Current techniques are limited to small area lights, with sharp shadows, or large low-frequency lights, with very soft shadows. Our main contribution is to approximate(More)
This paper focuses on efficient rendering based on pre-computed light transport, with realistic materials and shadows under all-frequency direct lighting such an environment maps. The basic difficulty is representation and computation in the 6D space of light direction, view direction, and surface position. While image-based and synthetic methods for(More)
By inserting a microlens array into the optical train of a conventional microscope, one can capture light fields of biological specimens in a single photograph. Although diffraction places a limit on the product of spatial and angular resolution in these light fields, we can nevertheless produce useful perspective views and focal stacks from them. Since(More)
Real-time shading with environment maps requires the ability to rotate the global lighting to each surface point's local coordinate frame. Although extensive previous work has studied rotation of functions represented by spherical harmonics, little work has investigated efficient rotation of wavelets. Wavelets are superior at approximating high frequency(More)
Real-time programmable graphics hardware has resource constraints that prevent complex shaders from rendering in a single pass. One way to virtualize these resources is to partition shading computations into multiple passes, each of which satisfies the given constraints. Many such partitions exist for a shader, but it is important to find one that renders(More)
Real-time graphics hardware is rapidly becoming programmable, and has recently incorporated the features needed for direct volume rendering. Unfortunately, the standard interfaces to this hardware are at the assembly language level. When programming at this level, it is difficult re-use and modify existing implementations of volume rendering algorithms, and(More)
This paper presents a method for efficient compression and relighting with high-resolution, precomputed light transport matrices. We accomplish this using a 4D wavelet transform, transforming the columns of the transport matrix, in addition to the 2D row transform used in previous work. We show that a standard 4D wavelet transform can actually inflate(More)