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In Arabidopsis thaliana, biosynthesis of the essential thiol antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), is plastid-regulated, but many GSH functions, including heavy metal detoxification and plant defense activation, depend on cytosolic GSH. This finding suggests that plastid and cytosol thiol pools are closely integrated and we show that in Arabidopsis this… (More)
The Zn/Cd-transporting ATPase, HMA2, has N- and C-terminal domains that can bind Zn ions with high affinity. Mutant derivatives were generated to determine the significance of these domains to HMA2 function in planta. Mutant derivatives, with and without a C-terminal GFP tag, were expressed from the HMA2 promoter in transgenic hma2,hma4, Zn-deficient,… (More)
* The usefulness of the zinc (Zn)-fluorophore, Zinpyr-1, to examine the localization of Zn in the roots of Arabidopsis has been investigated. * In wild-type roots Zinpyr-1 fluorescence was predominantly in the xylem. The fluorescence signal was abolished by the application of the Zn-chelator, N,N,N',N-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and was… (More)
HMA2, HMA4, and HMA7 are three of the eight heavy metal transporting P(1B)-type ATPases in the simple plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The first two transport Zn(2+), and the third transports Cu(+). Each protein contains soluble N-terminal metal-binding domains (MBDs) that are essential for metal transport. While the MBD of HMA7 features a CxxC sequence motif… (More)
Epipolythiodioxopiperazine toxins are secreted by a range of fungi, including Leptosphaeria maculans, which produces sirodesmin, and Aspergillus fumigatus, which produces gliotoxin. The L. maculans biosynthetic gene cluster for sirodesmin includes an ABC transporter gene, sirA. Disruption of this gene led to increased secretion of sirodesmin into the medium… (More)
Ikeda, S., and N. Izumi. 1990. Width and depth of self-formed straight gravel rivers with bank vegetation. 1984. Design for a stable channel in coarse alluvium for riparian zone restoration.
BACKGROUND Sirodesmin PL is a secondary metabolite toxin made by the ascomycetous plant pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans. The sirodesmin biosynthetic genes are clustered in the genome. The key genes are a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, sirP, and a pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ. Little is known about regulation of sirodesmin production. … (More)