Learn More
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) causes acute gut inflammation by using its virulence factors to invade the intestinal epithelium and survive in mucosal macrophages. The inflammatory response enhances the transmission success of S. Typhimurium by promoting its outgrowth in the gut lumen through unknown mechanisms. Here we show that(More)
Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium requires a functional type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) to cause diarrhea. We investigated the role of genes encoding secreted target proteins of the SPI1-associated type III secretion system for enteropathogenicity in calves. Salmonella serotype Typhimurium strains having(More)
Inflammasomes are cytosolic multiprotein complexes that sense microbial infection and trigger cytokine production and cell death. However, the molecular components of inflammasomes and what they sense remain poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that 35 amino acids of the carboxyl terminus of flagellin triggered inflammasome activation in the absence of(More)
Survival and replication inside host cells by Brucella spp. requires a type IV secretion system (T4SS), encoded by the virB locus. However, the identity of the molecules secreted by the T4SS has remained elusive. We hypothesized that proteins translocated by the T4SS would be co-regulated with the virB operon. The LuxR family regulator VjbR, known to(More)
Changes in the microbial community structure are observed in individuals with intestinal inflammatory disorders. These changes are often characterized by a depletion of obligate anaerobic bacteria, whereas the relative abundance of facultative anaerobic Enterobacteriaceae increases. The mechanisms by which the host response shapes the microbial community(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn disease and type 2 diabetes. ER stress induces the unfolded protein response, which involves activation of three transmembrane receptors, ATF6, PERK and IRE1α. Once activated, IRE1α recruits TRAF2 to the ER membrane to initiate inflammatory responses via the(More)
Bacterial flagellins are potent inducers of innate immunity. Three signaling pathways have been implicated in the sensing of flagellins; these involve toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and the cytosolic proteins Birc1e/Naip5 and Ipaf. Although the structural basis of TLR5-flagellin interaction is known, little is known about how flagellin enters the host cell(More)
Salmonella typhimurium infection of mice is an established model system for studying typhoid fever in humans. Using this model, we identified S. typhimurium genes which are absolutely required to cause fatal murine infection by testing independently derived transposon insertion mutants for loss of virulence in vivo. Of the 330 mutants tested(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the importance of iron for in vitro growth of Rhodococcus equi, define potential iron sources in the environment and mechanisms by which R equi may obtain iron from the environment, and assess expression and immunogenicity of iron-regulated proteins. SAMPLE POPULATION 10 virulent and 11 avirulent strains of R equi. PROCEDURE In(More)
The facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen Brucella infects a wide range of warm-blooded land and marine vertebrates and causes brucellosis. Currently, there are nine recognized Brucella species based on host preferences and phenotypic differences. The availability of 10 different genomes consisting of two chromosomes and representing six of the(More)