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The number of daily deaths, temperature, relative humidity, and 24-hr concentrations of main air pollutants observed during a heat wave (June 27-August 7, 1994) in Belgium were compared with those recorded before and after this heat wave. All these variables were averaged over the country. Expected mortality was calculated from daily deaths observed during(More)
For the last five years, the Brussels Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology has been involved in the surveillance of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The four indicators used (number of encounters of ARI by GP's/100 encounters, virus isolations, absenteeism and mortality) are discussed. A regression procedure is applied to the data collected by a(More)
OBJECTIVES Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge. The objective is to compare the intensity of ILI and ARI in some European countries. DESIGN AND SETTING Weekly ILI and ARI(More)
Start of the 2014/15 influenza season in Europe: drifted influenza A(H3N2) viruses circulate as dominant subtype The influenza season 2014/15 started in Europe in week 50 2014 with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. The majority of the A(H3N2) viruses character-ised antigenically and/or genetically differ from the northern hemisphere vaccine component(More)
Pandemic influenza is a zoonosis. Studies on influenza ecology conducted in Hong Kong since the 1970s in which Hong Kong essentially functioned as an influenza sentinel post indicated that it might be possible, for the first time, to have influenza preparedness at the baseline avian level. This appreciation of influenza ecology facilitated recognition of(More)
BACKGROUND Timely influenza surveillance is important to monitor influenza epidemics. OBJECTIVES (i) To calculate the epidemic threshold for influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) in 19 countries, as well as the thresholds for different levels of intensity. (ii) To evaluate the performance of these thresholds. METHODS The(More)
Extensive investigations were carried out to study the relationship between daily mortality in the elderly, outdoor air temperature, and ozone concentration observed in Belgium during the hot summer, 1994. The two environmental variables were assessed through mean daily temperature and 24-hr ozone concentration, both measured the day before and averaged(More)
In France, Ireland, Spain and the United Kingdom, the influenza season 2011/12 started in the final weeks of 2011 and has been dominated by influenza A(H3) viruses with minimal circulation of influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 and B viruses. A relatively greater proportion, however, of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were reported in hospitalised laboratory-confirmed(More)
Union Member States plus Norway and Iceland. The main trends are derived from published literature as well as the analysis and interpretation of data provided to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) through the European Influenza Surveillance Network (EISN) and data collected by the ECDC itself. The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic(More)
• As of 16 February 2013, twelve laboratory confirmed cases of respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (novel CoV) have been reported to the World Health Organization (WHO). Six of the cases have been fatal and two others remain very ill. Onset of disease was between April 2012 and February 2013. • Three new confirmed cases have been diagnosed(More)