René Snacken

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The number of daily deaths, temperature, relative humidity, and 24-hr concentrations of main air pollutants observed during a heat wave (June 27-August 7, 1994) in Belgium were compared with those recorded before and after this heat wave. All these variables were averaged over the country. Expected mortality was calculated from daily deaths observed during(More)
E Broberg (, R Snacken1, C Adlhoch1, J Beauté1, M Galinska2, D Pereyaslov2, C Brown2, P Penttinen1, on behalf of the WHO European Region and the European Influenza Surveillance Network3 1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden 2. World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe,(More)
We describe the epidemiology and virology of the official length of the 2009 pandemic (68 weeks from April 2009 to August 2010) in the 27 European Union Member States plus Norway and Iceland. The main trends are derived from published literature as well as the analysis and interpretation of data provided to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and(More)
Pandemic influenza is a zoonosis. Studies on influenza ecology conducted in Hong Kong since the 1970s in which Hong Kong essentially functioned as an influenza sentinel post indicated that it might be possible, for the first time, to have influenza preparedness at the baseline avian level. This appreciation of influenza ecology facilitated recognition of(More)
Extensive investigations were carried out to study the relationship between daily mortality in the elderly, outdoor air temperature, and ozone concentration observed in Belgium during the hot summer, 1994. The two environmental variables were assessed through mean daily temperature and 24-hr ozone concentration, both measured the day before and averaged(More)
In France, Ireland, Spain and the United Kingdom, the influenza season 2011/12 started in the final weeks of 2011 and has been dominated by influenza A(H3) viruses with minimal circulation of influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 and B viruses. A relatively greater proportion, however, of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were reported in hospitalised laboratory-confirmed(More)
Two methodologies are used for describing and estimating influenza-related mortality: Individual-based methods, which use death certification and laboratory diagnosis and predominately determine patterns and risk factors for mortality, and population-based methods, which use statistical and modelling techniques to estimate numbers of premature deaths. The(More)
BACKGROUND Timely influenza surveillance is important to monitor influenza epidemics. OBJECTIVES (i) To calculate the epidemic threshold for influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) in 19 countries, as well as the thresholds for different levels of intensity. (ii) To evaluate the performance of these thresholds. METHODS The(More)
This paper summarizes influenza activity in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in 2012-2013. The influenza season 2012-2013 in Europe lasted from early December to late April. Overall the severity of the season could be described as moderate, based on the ILI/ARI consultation rates and the percentage of sentinel specimens positive for(More)
OBJECTIVES Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge. The objective is to compare the intensity of ILI and ARI in some European countries. DESIGN AND SETTING Weekly ILI and ARI(More)