René P. Schwarzenbach

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5.2 Thermodynamic Considerations Solubilities and Aqueous Activity Coefficients of Organic Liquids Solubilities and Aqueous Activity Coefficients of Organic Solids Solubilities and Aqueous Activity Coefficients of Organic Gases Illustrative Example 5.1 : Deriving Liquid Aqueous Solubilities, Aqueous Activity CoefJicients, and Excess Free Energies in Aqueous(More)
Measuring stable isotope fractionation of carbon, hydrogen, and other elements by Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) is a new, innovative approach to assess organic pollutant degradation in the environment. Central to this concept is the Rayleigh equation which relates degradation-induced decreases in concentrations directly to concomitant changes in(More)
The increasing worldwide contamination of freshwater systems with thousands of industrial and natural chemical compounds is one of the key environmental problems facing humanity. Although most of these compounds are present at low concentrations, many of them raise considerable toxicological concerns, particularly when present as components of complex(More)
Concentrations of pesticides in Swiss rivers and lakes frequently exceed the Swiss quality goal of 0.1 microg/l for surface waters. In this study, concentrations of various pesticides (e.g., atrazine, diuron, mecoprop) were continuously measured in the effluents of waste water treatment plants and in two rivers during a period of four months. These(More)
Compound-specific analysis of stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes was used to assess the fate of the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and its major degradation product tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in a groundwater plume at an industrial disposal site. We present a novel approach to evaluate two-dimensional compound-specific isotope data with the(More)
A bacterium tentatively identified as a Pseudomonas sp. was isolated from a laboratory aquifer column in which toluene was degraded under denitrifying conditions. The organism mineralized toluene in pure culture in the absence of molecular oxygen. In carbon balance studies using [ring-UL-14C]toluene, more than 50% of the radioactivity was recovered as(More)
The behavior of organic micropollutants during infiltration of river water to groundwater has been studied at two field sites in Switzerland. In agreement with predictions from model calculations, persistent organic chemicals exhibiting octanol/water partition coefficients smaller than about 5000 moved rapidly with the infiltrating river water to the(More)
The kinetics of the reduction of 10 monosubstituted nitrobenzenes (NBs) by Fe(ll) has been investigated under various experimental conditions in aqueous suspensions of minerals commonly present in soils and sediments. Aqueous solutions of Fe(l1) were unreactive. In suspensions of Fe(ll1)-containing minerals (magnetite, goethite, and lepidocrocite), Fe( 11)(More)
Toluene and m-xylene were rapidly mineralized in an anaerobic laboratory aquifer column operated under continuous-flow conditions with nitrate as an electron acceptor. The oxidation of toluene and m-xylene was coupled with the reduction of nitrate, and mineralization was confirmed by trapping 14CO2 evolved from 14C-ring-labeled substrates. Substrate(More)
Up to 0.4 mM 1,3-dimethylbenzene (m-xylene) was rapidly mineralized in a laboratory aquifer column operated in the absence of molecular oxygen with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Under continuous flow conditions, the degradation rate constant (pseudo-first order) was >0.45 h. Based on a carbon mass balance with [ring-C]m-xylene and a calculation of the(More)