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Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are key regulators of the eukaryotic cell division cycle. Cdk1 (Cdc2) and Cdk2 should be bound to regulatory subunits named cyclins as well as phosphorylated on a conserved Thr located in the T-loop for full enzymatic activity. Cdc2- and Cdk2-cyclin complexes can be inactivated by phosphorylation on the catalytic(More)
In Xenopus oocytes, the c-mos proto-oncogene product has been proposed to act downstream of progesterone to control the entry into meiosis I, the transition from meiosis I to meiosis II, which is characterized by the absence of S phase, and the metaphase II arrest seen prior to fertilization. Here, we report that inhibition of Mos synthesis by morpholino(More)
Micro-injection of, or incubation with okadaic acid (OA), a specific phosphatase inhibitor, can induce formation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Comparison of the dose-response curves of OA on maturation, isolated enzymes and phosphatase activities in crude oocyte preparations suggests(More)
During oogenesis, the Xenopus oocyte is blocked in prophase of meiosis I. It becomes competent to resume meiosis in response to progesterone at the end of its growing period (stage VI of oogenesis). Stage IV oocytes contain a store of inactive pre-MPF (Tyr15-phosphorylated Cdc2 bound to cyclin B2); the Cdc25 phosphatase that catalyzes Tyr15(More)
PTPA, a specific phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator of the PCSH2 and PCSL protein phosphatases, was purified up to apparent homogeneity from Xenopus laevis ovaries and rabbit skeletal muscle and highly purified from dog liver. PTPA appears as a 40-kDa protein in gel filtration, as well as in sucrose gradient centrifugation, and as a 37-39-kDa protein(More)
Xenopus oocytes were stained by anti-tubulin and anti-MAP1 antibodies during the first meiotic cell division. In the prophase-blocked oocytes, only few microtubules are present around the upper part of the nuclear envelope. These microtubules are resistant to cold, calcium and antimitotic drug treatments. At this stage, monoclonal anti-MAP1 antibody and(More)
During Xenopus oogenesis, the follicle-enclosed oocyte, arrested at the diplotene stage of meiotic prophase, accumulates pre-MPF. Pre-MPF is an heterodimer formed of cyclin B2 and Cdc2 protein kinase, which is maintained inactive by inhibitory phosphorylations on Thr14 and Tyr15. When the oocyte reaches its full size, it becomes competent to respond to(More)
During progesterone-induced meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes in vitro, 7 morphological stages were defined. Using cytological analysis, nuclear breakdown was divided into three stages. Stage 1 corresponded to basal germinal vesicle breakdown. Stage 2 was characterized by the advent and development of a fibrillar network formed by microtubules at the(More)
Progesterone-induced meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes requires the synthesis of new proteins, such as Mos and cyclin B. Synthesis of Mos is thought to be necessary and sufficient for meiotic maturation; however, it has recently been proposed that newly synthesized proteins binding to p34(cdc2) could be involved in a signaling pathway that triggers the(More)
The tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of p34cdc2 was estimated by immunoblotting with antiphosphotyrosine antibody during meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes. At the time of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), p34cdc2 is tyrosine dephosphorylated whereas a p42 protein, which might correspond to a MAP2 kinase, becomes tyrosine phosphorylated. No(More)