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Acetylcholine released by efferent vagus nerves inhibits macrophage activation. Here we show that the anti-inflammatory action of nicotinic receptor activation in peritoneal macrophages was associated with activation of the transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 was phosphorylated by the tyrosine kinase Jak2 that was recruited to the alpha7 subunit of the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We previously showed that intestinal inflammation is reduced by electrical stimulation of the efferent vagus nerve, which prevents postoperative ileus in mice. We propose that this cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is mediated via alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on macrophages. The aim of this study was to evaluate(More)
Vitiligo is an autoimmune condition characterized by loss of epidermal melanocytes. High frequencies of melanocyte-reactive cytotoxic T cells in the peripheral blood of vitiligo patients and the observed correlation between perilesional T-cell infiltration and melanocyte loss in situ suggest the important role of cellular autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of(More)
BACKGROUND Mast cell activation is thought to be involved in visceral hypersensitivity, one of the main characteristics of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of the mast cell stabiliser ketotifen on rectal sensitivity and symptoms in patients with IBS. METHODS 60 patients with IBS underwent a(More)
OBJECTIVES Stressful events during early life have been suggested to play an important role in the development of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, we evaluate whether an exposure to severe wartime conditions during gestation and in early life are associated with an increased prevalence of IBS. METHODS We assessed the prevalence of IBS(More)
In situ immune infiltrates in lesional, perilesional, and nonlesional skin biopsies from patients with vitiligo were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and compared with immune infiltrates found in the skin of normal healthy donors and relevant disease controls. An increased influx of activated skin-homing T cells and macrophages were seen in the perilesional(More)
BACKGROUND Abdominal surgery involving bowel manipulation commonly results in inflammation of the bowel wall, which leads to impaired intestinal motility and postoperative ileus (POI). Mast cells have shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of POI in mouse models and human studies. We studied whether mast cells contribute to the pathogenesis of POI by(More)
Intestinal manipulation (IM) during abdominal surgery triggers the influx of inflammatory cells, leading to postoperative ileus. Prevention of this local muscle inflammation, using intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-specific antibodies, has been shown to shorten postoperative ileus. However, the(More)
Mast cells may be regarded as prototypes of innate immune cells that can be controlled by neuronal mediators. Their activation has been implicated in many types of neuro-inflammatory responses, and related disturbances of gut motility, via direct or indirect mechanisms that involve several mechanisms relevant to disease pathogenesis such as changes in(More)