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A pairwise comparison of the nucleic acid sequence of 168 bases from 152 wild-type or unique cell culture-adapted strains of hepatitis A virus (HAV) revealed that HAV strains can be differentiated genetically into seven unique genotypes (I to VII). In general, the nucleotide sequence of viruses in different genotypes differs at 15 to 25% of positions within(More)
Variants of hepatitis A virus (pHM175 virus) recovered from persistently infected green monkey kidney (BS-C-1) cells induced a cytopathic effect during serial passage in BS-C-1 or fetal rhesus kidney (FRhK-4) cells. Epitope-specific radioimmunofocus assays showed that this virus comprised two virion populations, one with altered antigenicity including(More)
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) refers to the properties of the brain vascular bed to maintain cerebral perfusion despite changes in blood pressure (BP). Whereas classic studies have assessed CA during changes in BP that have a gradual onset, dynamic studies quantify the fast modifications in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in relation to rapid alterations in BP.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE With increasing age, assuming the upright position is more often accompanied by symptoms such as dizziness and lightheadedness, possibly as a result of a diminished oxygen supply to the brain due to impaired cerebral autoregulation. We aimed to quantify postural changes in cerebral oxygenation and systemic hemodynamics in healthy(More)
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method to monitor cerebral haemodynamics. Used either alone or in combination with other non-invasive methods such as transcranial Doppler sonography, this technique is well suited for use in cerebrovascular research in ageing. Reproducibility of NIRS, however, has only been determined in neonates and(More)
Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) both allow non-invasive monitoring of cerebral cortical oxygenation responses to various stimuli. To compare these methods in elderly subjects and to determine the effect of age on cortical oxygenation responses, we determined motor-task-related changes in deoxyhemoglobin(More)
OBJECTIVE To show the clinical relevance of postprandial hypotension and to review its pathophysiology and management. DATA SOURCES Articles on postprandial hypotension were identified through MEDLINE and bibliographies of relevant articles. STUDY SELECTION All articles and case reports describing meal-related hypotension in the elderly and in patients(More)
We describe an immunoaffinity-linked nucleic acid amplification system (antigen-capture/polymerase chain reaction, or AC/PCR) for detection of viruses in clinical specimens and its application to the study of the molecular epidemiology of a picornavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV). Immunoaffinity capture of virus, synthesis of viral cDNA, and amplification of(More)
In the elderly, standing can frequently be accompanied by blood pressure (BP) changes and cerebral symptoms such as dizziness, fall, or even syncope, but this may vary from day-to-day. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the reproducibility of orthostatic responses of cerebral cortical oxygenation and systemic haemodynamics in elderly subjects. In 27 healthy(More)
The treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) is based on the cholinergic hypothesis. This hypothesis fails to account for the global nature of the clinical effects of ChEIs, for the replication of these effects in other dementias, and for the strong and unpredictable intraindividual variation in response to treatment.(More)