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The development of ultrasound contrast agents, containing encapsulated microbubbles, has increased the possibilities for diagnostic imaging. Ultrasound contrast agents are currently used to enhance left ventricular opacification, increase Doppler signal intensity, and in myocardial perfusion imaging. Diagnostic imaging with contrast agents is performed with(More)
In the present study, we addressed the interactions among ultrasound, microbubbles, and living cells as well as consequent arising bioeffects. We specifically investigated whether hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is involved in transient permeabilization of cell membranes in vitro after ultrasound exposure at low diagnostic power, in the presence of stable(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the development and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Mitochondrial alterations might occur as a response to demyelination and inflammation, since demyelination leads to an increased energy demand in axons and could thereby affect the number, distribution and activity of mitochondria. We have(More)
PURPOSE Resistance to antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as sunitinib is an important clinical problem, but its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We analyzed tumor sunitinib levels in mice and patients and studied sensitivity and resistance mechanisms to sunitinib. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Intratumoral and plasma sunitinib concentrations(More)
We examined the relationship between clusterin and activated complement in human heart infarction and evaluated the effect of this protein on ischemic rat neonatal cardiomyoblasts (H9c2) and isolated adult ventricular rat cardiomyocytes as in vitro models of acute myocardial infarction. Clusterin protects cells by inhibiting complement and colocalizes with(More)
Bacterial virulence is best studied in animal models. However, the lack of possibilities for real time analysis and the need for laborious and invasive sample analysis limit the use of experimental animals. In the present study 28 h-old zebrafish embryos were infected with DsRed-labelled cells of Salmonella typhimurium. Using multidimensional digital(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in various events underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology. In the initial phase of lesion formation, ROS are known to mediate the transendothelial migration of monocytes and induce a dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we describe the beneficial effect of the antioxidant(More)
OBJECTIVE Rho kinase mediates vascular leakage caused by many vasoactive agents including thrombin. Enhanced Rho kinase activity induces endothelial barrier dysfunction by a contractile mechanism via inactivation of Myosin Phosphatase (MP). Here, we investigated the contribution of basal Rho kinase activity to the regulation of endothelial barrier(More)
Apoptosis of endothelial cells related to homocysteine (Hcy) has been reported in several studies. In this study, we evaluated whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing signaling pathways contribute to Hcy-induced apoptosis induction, with specific emphasis on NADPH oxidases. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with 0.01–2.5 mM Hcy.(More)
The adaptation to chronic hypoxia confers long-lasting cardiac protection against acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. Protein kinase C (PKC) appears to play a role in the cardioprotective mechanism but the involvement of individual PKC isoforms remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH; 7,000 m, 8(More)