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We took advantage of the partial protection exerted by suitable dosages of nicotinamide against the beta-cytotoxic effect of streptozotocin (STZ) to create a new experimental diabetic syndrome in adult rats that appears closer to NIDDM than other available animal models with regard to insulin responsiveness to glucose and sulfonylureas. Among the various(More)
A novel Bordetella species was isolated from an anaerobic, dechlorinating bioreactor culture enriched from river sediment. The only strain, Se-1111R(T) (= DSM 12804T = CCUG 43448T), for which the name Bordetella petrii is proposed, is designated the type strain of the novel species. Strain Se-1111R(T) was isolated from the dechlorinating mixed culture due(More)
The systematic relationships of intracellular bacteria of 13 Camponotus species (carpenter ants) from America and Europe were compared to those of their hosts. Phylogenetic trees of the bacteria and the ants were based on 16S rDNA (rrs) gene sequences and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences, respectively. The bacterial(More)
We report the characterization of a new insulinotropic compound, 4-hydroxyisoleucine. This amino acid has been extracted and purified from fenugreek seeds, which are known in traditional medicine for their antidiabetic properties. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine increases glucose-induced insulin release, in the concentration range of 100 micromol/l to 1 mmol/l, through(More)
We have recently shown in vitro that 4-hydroxyisoleucine (4-OH-Ile), an amino acid extracted from fenugreek seeds, potentiates insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. The present study was designed to investigate whether 4-OH-Ile could exert in vivo insulinotropic and antidiabetic properties. For this purpose, intravenous or oral glucose tolerance(More)
Evidence is presented showing that a neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is expressed in rat pancreatic islets and INS-1 cells. Sequencing of the coding region indicated a 99.8% homology with rat neuronal NOS (nNOS) with four mutations, three of them resulting in modifications of the amino acid sequence. Double-immunofluorescence studies(More)
The genus Bordetella comprises seven species with pathogenic potential for different host organisms. This article attempts to review our current knowledge about the systematics and evolution of this important group of pathogens, their relationship to environmental microorganisms and about molecular mechanisms of host adaptation.
Bordetella pertussis is readily killed after uptake by professional phagocytes, whereas its close relative Bordetella bronchiseptica is not and can persist intracellularly for days. Phagocytosis of members of either species by a mouse macrophage cell line results in transport of the bacteria to a phagosomal compartment positive for the lysosome-associated(More)
C(4)-dicarboxylate transport is a prerequisite for anaerobic respiration with fumarate in Wolinella succinogenes, since the substrate site of fumarate reductase is oriented towards the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. W. succinogenes was found to transport C(4)-dicarboxylates (fumarate, succinate, malate, and aspartate) across the cytoplasmic membrane by(More)
Intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria inherent to ants of the genus Camponotus were characterized. The bacteria were localized in bacteriocytes, which are specialized cells of both workers and queen ants; these cells are intercalated between epithelial cells of the midgut. The bacteriocytes show a different morphology from the normal epithelial cells and(More)