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In mid September 2008, clinical signs of bluetongue (particularly coronitis) were observed in cows on three different farms in eastern Netherlands (Luttenberg, Heeten, and Barchem), two of which had been vaccinated with an inactivated BTV-8 vaccine (during May-June 2008). Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection was also detected on a fourth farm (Oldenzaal) in the(More)
Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin. In 2006, a huge BT-outbreak started after incursion of BTV-serotype 8 (BTV8) in North-Western Europe. More recently, BTV6 and BTV11 were reported in North-Western Europe in 2008. These latter strains are closely related to(More)
Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin. In 2006, a huge BT outbreak started after incursion of BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) in North-Western Europe. IN 2008, BTV6 and BTV11 were reported in the Netherlands and Germany, and in Belgium, respectively. In addition, Toggenburg(More)
Bluetongue is a disease in ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV), and is spread by Culicoides biting midges. Bluetongue outbreaks cause huge economic losses and death in sheep in several parts of the world. The most effective measure to control BTV is vaccination. However, both commercially available vaccines and recently developed vaccine(More)
Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes Bluetongue in ruminants and is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control vector borne diseases; however, there are 26 known BTV serotypes showing little cross protection. The BTV serotype is mainly determined by genome segment 2 encoding the VP2 protein. Currently, inactivated(More)
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against envelope glycoprotein E1 (gp51-54) of hog cholera virus (HCV) strain Brescia have been shown to recognize four different antigenic domains A, B, C and D. Epitopes of within domain A have mainly been found conserved among HCV strains, whereas epitopes within domains B, C and D are not conserved. We used(More)
Orbiviruses form the largest genus of the family Reoviridae consisting of at least 23 different virus species. One of these is the bluetongue virus (BTV) and causes severe hemorrhagic disease in ruminants, and is transmitted by bites of Culicoides midges. BTV is a non-enveloped virus which is released from infected cells by cell lysis and/or a unique(More)
Members of the Reoviridae family are non-enveloped multi-layered viruses with a double stranded RNA genome consisting of 9 to 12 genome segments. Bluetongue virus is the prototype orbivirus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus), causing disease in ruminants, and is spread by Culicoides biting midges. Obviously, several steps in the Reoviridae family(More)
Bluetongue virus (BTV), a segmented dsRNA virus, is the causative agent of bluetongue (BT), an economically important viral haemorrhagic disease of ruminants. Bluetongue virus can exchange its genome segments in mammalian or insect cells that have been co-infected with more than one strain of the virus. This process, may potentially give rise to the(More)
A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR test) based on genome segment 10 of Bluetongue virus (BTV) was developed. The PCR test consists of robotized viral RNA isolation from blood samples and an all-in-one method including initial denaturation of genomic double-stranded RNA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(More)