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The composition and activity of the gut microbiota codevelop with the host from birth and is subject to a complex interplay that depends on the host genome, nutrition, and life-style. The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of multiple host metabolic pathways, giving rise to interactive host-microbiota metabolic, signaling, and immune-inflammatory(More)
Leptin is an adipocyte hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop regulating body weight, and acts by interacting with a receptor in the hypothalamus and other tissues. Leptin treatment has potent effects on lipid metabolism, and leads to a large, specific reduction of adipose tissue mass after several days. Here we show that(More)
Insulin controls glucose homeostasis by regulating glucose use in peripheral tissues, and its own production and secretion in pancreatic beta cells. These responses are largely mediated downstream of the insulin receptor substrates, IRS-1 and IRS-2 (refs 4-8), through distinct signalling pathways. Although a number of effectors of these pathways have been(More)
A fat-enriched diet modifies intestinal microbiota and initiates a low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. Here, we demonstrate that before the onset of diabetes, after only one week of a high-fat diet (HFD), live commensal intestinal bacteria are present in large numbers in the adipose tissue and the blood where they can induce(More)
Type-2 diabetes results from the development of insulin resistance and a concomitant impairment of insulin secretion. Recent studies place altered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) as an underlying genetic element of insulin resistance. However, the causative or compensatory nature of these OxPhos changes has yet to be proven. Here, we show(More)
OBJECTIVE Zinc ions are essential for the formation of hexameric insulin and hormone crystallization. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs13266634 in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule zinc transporter ZnT8, is associated with type 2 diabetes. We describe the effects of deleting the ZnT8 gene in mice and explore the action of the(More)
OBJECTIVE AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling acts as a sensor of nutrients and hormones in the hypothalamus, thereby regulating whole-body energy homeostasis. Deletion of Ampkα2 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons causes obesity and defective neuronal glucose sensing. LKB1, the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome gene product, and(More)
OBJECTIVE The study objective was to evaluate the possible role of the macrophage molecule CD14 in insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The effects of recombinant human soluble CD14 (rh-sCD14) on insulin sensitivity (clamp procedure) and adipose tissue gene expression were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice, high fat-fed mice, ob/ob mice, and(More)
Both acute and chronic apelin treatment have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in mice. However, the effects of apelin on fatty acid oxidation (FAO) during obesity-related insulin resistance have not yet been addressed. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine the impact of chronic treatment on lipid use, especially in skeletal muscles.(More)
Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-␣ increases lipid catabolism and lowers the concentration of circulating lipid, but its role in the control of glucose metabolism is not as clearly established. Here we compared PPAR␣ knockout mice with wild type and confirmed that the former developed hypoglycemia during fasting. This was(More)