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OBJECTIVE Diabetes and obesity are characterized by a low-grade inflammation whose molecular origin is unknown. We previously determined, first, that metabolic endotoxemia controls the inflammatory tone, body weight gain, and diabetes, and second, that high-fat feeding modulates gut microbiota and the plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), i.e.,(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Recent evidence suggests that a particular gut microbial community may favour occurrence of the metabolic diseases. Recently, we reported that high-fat (HF) feeding was associated with higher endotoxaemia and lower Bifidobacterium species (spp.) caecal content in mice. We therefore tested whether restoration of the quantity of caecal(More)
Diabetes and obesity are two metabolic diseases characterized by insulin resistance and a low-grade inflammation. Seeking an inflammatory factor causative of the onset of insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes, we have identified bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a triggering factor. We found that normal endotoxemia increased or decreased during the(More)
The composition and activity of the gut microbiota codevelop with the host from birth and is subject to a complex interplay that depends on the host genome, nutrition, and life-style. The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of multiple host metabolic pathways, giving rise to interactive host-microbiota metabolic, signaling, and immune-inflammatory(More)
Leptin is an adipocyte hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop regulating body weight, and acts by interacting with a receptor in the hypothalamus and other tissues. Leptin treatment has potent effects on lipid metabolism, and leads to a large, specific reduction of adipose tissue mass after several days. Here we show that(More)
Insulin controls glucose homeostasis by regulating glucose use in peripheral tissues, and its own production and secretion in pancreatic beta cells. These responses are largely mediated downstream of the insulin receptor substrates, IRS-1 and IRS-2 (refs 4-8), through distinct signalling pathways. Although a number of effectors of these pathways have been(More)
Recent data suggest that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in fat accumulation. However, it is not clear whether gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. To assess this issue, we modulated gut microbiota via antibiotics administration in two different mouse models with insulin resistance. Results from(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is viewed as a fuel sensor for glucose and lipid metabolism. To better understand the physiological role of AMPK, we generated a knockout mouse model in which the AMPKalpha2 catalytic subunit gene was inactivated. AMPKalpha2(-/-) mice presented high glucose levels in the fed period and during an oral glucose challenge(More)
In the preceding article, we demonstrated that activation of the hepatoportal glucose sensor led to a paradoxical development of hypoglycemia that was associated with increased glucose utilization by a subset of tissues. In this study, we tested whether GLUT2 plays a role in the portal glucose-sensing system that is similar to its involvement in pancreatic(More)
To analyze the role of the murine hepatoportal glucose sensor in the control of whole-body glucose metabolism, we infused glucose at a rate corresponding to the endogenous glucose production rate through the portal vein of conscious mice (Po-mice) that were fasted for 6 h. Mice infused with glucose at the same rate through the femoral vein (Fe-mice) and(More)