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The composition and activity of the gut microbiota codevelop with the host from birth and is subject to a complex interplay that depends on the host genome, nutrition, and life-style. The gut microbiota is involved in the regulation of multiple host metabolic pathways, giving rise to interactive host-microbiota metabolic, signaling, and immune-inflammatory(More)
OBJECTIVE Zinc ions are essential for the formation of hexameric insulin and hormone crystallization. A nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs13266634 in the SLC30A8 gene, encoding the secretory granule zinc transporter ZnT8, is associated with type 2 diabetes. We describe the effects of deleting the ZnT8 gene in mice and explore the action of the(More)
OBJECTIVE AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling acts as a sensor of nutrients and hormones in the hypothalamus, thereby regulating whole-body energy homeostasis. Deletion of Ampkα2 in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons causes obesity and defective neuronal glucose sensing. LKB1, the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome gene product, and(More)
OBJECTIVE The study objective was to evaluate the possible role of the macrophage molecule CD14 in insulin resistance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The effects of recombinant human soluble CD14 (rh-sCD14) on insulin sensitivity (clamp procedure) and adipose tissue gene expression were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice, high fat-fed mice, ob/ob mice, and(More)
Type-2 diabetes results from the development of insulin resistance and a concomitant impairment of insulin secretion. Recent studies place altered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) as an underlying genetic element of insulin resistance. However, the causative or compensatory nature of these OxPhos changes has yet to be proven. Here, we show(More)
OBJECTIVE The gut microbiota, which is considered a causal factor in metabolic diseases as shown best in animals, is under the dual influence of the host genome and nutritional environment. This study investigated whether the gut microbiota per se, aside from changes in genetic background and diet, could sign different metabolic phenotypes in mice. (More)
BACKGROUND Obesity-associated inflammation is of critical importance in the development of insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Since the cannabinoid receptor CB2 regulates innate immunity, the aim of the present study was to investigate its role in obesity-induced inflammation, insulin resistance and fatty liver. METHODOLOGY Murine(More)
OBJECTIVE Ingested glucose is detected by specialized sensors in the enteric/hepatoportal vein, which send neural signals to the brain, which in turn regulates key peripheral tissues. Hence, impairment in the control of enteric-neural glucose sensing could contribute to disordered glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the cells in the(More)
These days, the gut microbiota is universally recognized as an active organ that can modulate the overall host metabolism by promoting multiple functions, from digestion to the systemic maintenance of overall host physiology. Dysbiosis, the alteration of the complex ecologic system of gut microbes, is associated with and causally responsible for multiple(More)