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The plural is used advisedly. Each of several microcirculations with specialized structural and functional properties is necessary to the physiologic functioning of the kidney. Newly elucidated aspects of renal vascular anatomy are mapped out and clearly related to the exchange processes that occur at the capillary level in each part of the nephron to(More)
Some controversy has always existed regarding the presence and extent of the vasa vasorum--the nutrient vessels in the wall of the human aorta--in the coronary arteries. Now, cinemicrographic studies using silicone polymer injections in cleared human hearts have identified the vasa vasorum of coronary arteries, revealing evidence of neovascularization in(More)
Tubular organization and vascular-tubular relations were studied by double injection in canine kidneys. Blood vessels were injected via the artery after perfusion fixation. Tubules were injected by micropipettes inserted into the urinary spaces of selected glomeruli in cleared slices. One hundred proximal convoluted tubules, 16 Henle loops, and 5 distal(More)
Lipoic acid (1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid) is a pharmacophore with unique antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. We synthesized a library based upon the condensation of natural and unnatural amino acids with the carboxylic acid moiety of lipoic acid. SAR studies were conducted using a cardiac ischemia-reperfusion animal model. Cytoprotective efficacy(More)
X-ray microanalysis of frozen-hydrated tissue sections permits direct quantitative analysis of diffusible elements in defined cellular compartments. Because the sections are hydrated, elemental concentrations can be defined as wet-weight mass fractions. Use of these techniques should also permit determination of water fraction in cellular compartments.(More)