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Eleven susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) were identified by previous studies; however, a large portion of the genetic risk for this disease remains unexplained. We conducted a large, two-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In stage 1, we used genotyped and imputed(More)
Plant disease resistance genes operate at the earliest steps of pathogen perception. The Arabidopsis RPP5 gene specifying resistance to the downy mildew pathogen Peronospora parasitica was positionally cloned. It encodes a protein that possesses a putative nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeats, and its product exhibits striking structural(More)
Galanin is a 29-aa neuropeptide with a complex role in pain processing. Several galanin receptor subtypes are present in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord with a differential distribution. Here, we describe a generation of a specific galanin R2 (GalR2) agonist, AR-M1896, and its application in studies of a rat neuropathic pain model (Bennett). The results(More)
We related the histopathologic changes associated with incidental white matter signal hyperintensities on MRIs from 11 elderly patients (age range, 52 to 82 years) to a descriptive classification for such abnormalities. Punctate, early confluent, and confluent white matter hyperintensities corresponded to increasing severity of ischemic tissue damage,(More)
Plant disease resistance genes function is highly specific pathogen recognition pathways. PRS2 is a resistance gene of Arabidopsis thaliana that confers resistance against Pseudomonas syringae bacteria that express avirulence gene avrRpt2. RPS2 was isolated by the use of a positional cloning strategy. The derived amino acid sequence of RPS2 contains(More)
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of(More)
Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46,(More)
TREX1 acts in concert with the SET complex in granzyme A-mediated apoptosis, and mutations in TREX1 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and familial chilblain lupus. Here, we report monoallelic frameshift or missense mutations and one 3' UTR variant of TREX1 present in 9/417 individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus but absent in 1,712 controls (P = 4.1 x(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the rate, clinical predictors, and cognitive consequences of MRI white matter hyperintensity evolution over 3 years. METHODS In the setting of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study, 1.5-T MRI was performed at baseline and at a 3-year follow-up in 273 community-dwelling elderly (mean age, 60+/-6.1 years) without neuropsychiatric(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the independent contributions and combined interactions of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA), cortical and subcortical atrophy, and white matter lesion (WML) volume in longitudinal cognitive performance. METHODS A total of 477 subjects with age-related WML were evaluated with brain MRI and annual neuropsychological examinations in(More)