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Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes mellitus and remains a leading cause of vision loss globally. Its aetiology and pathology have been extensively studied for half a century, yet there are disappointingly few therapeutic options. Although some new treatments have been introduced for diabetic macular oedema (DMO)(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that regulate expression of specific mRNA targets. They can be released from cells, often encapsulated within extracellular vesicles (EVs), and therefore have the potential to mediate intercellular communication. It has been suggested that certain miRNAs may be selectively exported, although the(More)
PURPOSE Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have potential for promoting vascular repair and revascularization of ischemic retina. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of these cells causes confusion when assessing their biological functions. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive comparison between the two main EPC subtypes, early(More)
Diabetic retinopathy remains the most common complication of diabetes mellitus and is a leading cause of visual loss in industrialized nations. The clinicopathology of the diabetic retina has been extensively studied, although the precise pathogenesis and cellular and molecular defects that lead to retinal vascular, neural and glial cell dysfunction remain(More)
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Patients with DR may irreversibly lose sight as a result of the development of diabetic macular edema (DME) and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR); retinal blood vessel dysfunction and degeneration plays an essential role in their pathogenesis. Although new treatments have(More)
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis, and clinical trials have shown such cell therapy to be feasible for treating ischemic disease. However, clinical outcomes have been contradictory owing to the diverse range of EPC types used. We recently characterized two EPC subtypes, and identified outgrowth endothelial cells as the only EPC type(More)
The vascular complications of diabetes significantly impact the quality of life and mortality in diabetic patients. Extensive evidence from various human clinical trials has clearly established that a period of poor glycemic control early in the disease process carries negative consequences, such as an increase in the development and progression of vascular(More)
In the present study, we examined the possible utility of a three-dimensional culture system using a thermo-reversible gelation polymer to isolate and expand neural stem cells (NSCs). The polymer is a synthetic biologically inert polymer and gelates at temperatures higher than the gel-sol transition point ( approximately 20 degrees C). When fetal mouse(More)
Results of recent studies have indicated that bone marrow cells can differentiate into various cells of ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal origins when transplanted into the body. However, the problems associated with those experiments such as the long latent period, rareness of the event, and difficulty in controlling the processes have hampered(More)
Umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (UCB-ECFC) show utility in neovascularization, but their contribution to osteogenesis has not been defined. Cocultures of UCB-ECFC with human fetal-mesenchymal stem cells (hfMSC) resulted in earlier induction of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (Day 7 vs. 10) and increased mineralization (1.9×; p <(More)