Reinhold J. Medina

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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small RNA molecules that regulate expression of specific mRNA targets. They can be released from cells, often encapsulated within extracellular vesicles (EVs), and therefore have the potential to mediate intercellular communication. It has been suggested that certain miRNAs may be selectively exported, although the(More)
Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes mellitus and remains a leading cause of vision loss globally. Its aetiology and pathology have been extensively studied for half a century, yet there are disappointingly few therapeutic options. Although some new treatments have been introduced for diabetic macular oedema (DMO)(More)
Diabetic retinopathy remains the most common complication of diabetes mellitus and is a leading cause of visual loss in industrialized nations. The clinicopathology of the diabetic retina has been extensively studied, although the precise pathogenesis and cellular and molecular defects that lead to retinal vascular, neural and glial cell dysfunction remain(More)
The term endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is currently used to refer to cell populations which are quite dissimilar in terms of biological properties. This study provides a detailed molecular fingerprint for two EPC subtypes: early EPCs (eEPCs) and outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs). Human blood-derived eEPCs and OECs were characterised by using(More)
The retinal vascular endothelium is essential for angiogenesis and is involved in maintaining barrier selectivity and vascular tone. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify microRNAs and other small regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which may regulate these crucial functions. Primary bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs)(More)
PURPOSE Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have potential for promoting vascular repair and revascularization of ischemic retina. However, the highly heterogeneous nature of these cells causes confusion when assessing their biological functions. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive comparison between the two main EPC subtypes, early(More)
BACKGROUND Current guidelines encourage the use of statins to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients; however the impact of these drugs on diabetic retinopathy is not well defined. Moreover, pleiotropic effects of statins on the highly specialised retinal microvascular endothelium remain largely unknown. The objective of this study(More)
Retinal ischaemic disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion are common. The hypoxia-related stimuli from oxygen-deprived neural and glial networks can drive expression of growth factors and cytokines which induce leakage from the surviving vasculature and/or pre-retinal and papillary neovascularisation. If left untreated, retinal(More)
Several growth factors and transcription factors have been reported to play important roles in brown adipocyte differentiation and modulation of thermogenic gene expression, especially the expression of UCP1. In this study, we focused on KLF11 and KLF15, which were expressed highly in brown adipose tissue. Our data demonstrated that KLF11 and KLF15(More)
Results of recent studies have indicated that bone marrow cells can differentiate into various cells of ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal origins when transplanted into the body. However, the problems associated with those experiments such as the long latent period, rareness of the event, and difficulty in controlling the processes have hampered(More)