Reinhard Stindl

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The mutation rates of cancer cells to drug and multidrug resistance are paradoxically high, i.e., 10(-3) to 10(-6), compared with those altering phenotypes of recessive genes in normal diploid cells of about 10(-12). Here the hypothesis was investigated that these mutations are due to chromosome reassortments that are catalyzed by aneuploidy. Aneuploidy, an(More)
For nearly a century, cancer has been blamed on somatic mutation. But it is still unclear whether this mutation is aneuploidy, an abnormal balance of chromosomes, or gene mutation. Despite enormous efforts, the currently popular gene mutation hypothesis has failed to identify cancer-specific mutations with transforming function and cannot explain why cancer(More)
Cancer cells and aneuploid cell lines can acquire resistance against multiple unrelated chemotherapeutic drugs that are over 3,000-fold those of normal levels and display spontaneous resistances up to 20-fold of normal levels. Two different mechanisms were proposed for this phenotype: (i) classical mutation of drug metabolizing genes or (ii) chromosome(More)
The classic explanation that women outlive men solely due to hormonal and lifestyle differences, does not withstand a critical analysis. In developed countries, the average gap in life expectancy between the sexes is 7 years. It has widened over the last decades, despite the trend of women copying the 'unhealthy' lifestyle of men. Estrogen levels in(More)
Pancytopenia and fulminant disseminated intravascular coagulation in a 68-year-old woman suggested an acute hematologic malignancy. However, cytogenetic analysis on a bone marrow sample revealed a near-tetraploid karyotype with an isochromosome 1q and a translocation (2;13) (q35;q14), which was suggestive of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS). This(More)
Charles Darwin knew that the fossil record is not overwhelmingly supportive of genetic and phenotypic gradualism; therefore, he developed the core of his theory on the basis of breeding experiments. Here, I present evidence for the existence of a cell biological mechanism that strongly points to the almost forgotten European concept of saltatory evolution(More)
According to the fossil record, 99.9% of all species that have ever lived on Earth have disappeared. However, only about 4% died out during the five mass extinction events, whereas it seems that the majority of species vanished without any signs of significant earthbound or extraterrestrial physical threats. Clearly, biological extinction mechanisms are by(More)
Einstein is often quoted to have said that without the bee, mankind would have but 4years to live. It is highly unlikely that he made this comment, which was even mentioned in a Lancet article on honey bees. However, the current vanishing of the bees can have serious consequences for human health, because 35% of the human diet is thought to benefit from(More)
Upon re-examination of large telomere datasets from healthy human populations, a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth was found. The authors theorized that relatively recent environmental stresses to female germ cells could have driven the observed intergenerational telomere erosion; otherwise, these trends would have pushed populations into(More)
Recently, an influential sequencing study found that more than 1700 genes had non-silent mutations in either a breast or colorectal cancer, out of just 11 breast and 11 colorectal tumor samples. This is not surprising given the fact that genomic instability is the hallmark of cancer cells. The plethora of genomic alterations found in every carcinoma does(More)