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According to current generally accepted theories, analysis of the shape of a bone provides clues to the stresses acting upon it. Although many investigations have ensured that understanding of the lower limb is relatively advance, knowledge relating to the upper limb, and particularly to the scapula, is still far from complete. We have therefore endeavoured(More)
The objective of this article was to analyze the accuracy and precision with which the quantitative distribution of articular cartilage can be determined in the knee joint using MRI. A three-dimensional (3D) technique that accounts for the out-of-plane deviation of the interface normal in strongly curved joint surfaces (3D MR-CCM) has been developed for(More)
The functional adaptation of bone tissue to the mechanical stresses acting on it has been convincingly established. This association should apply as well to the subchondral bone, reflecting the long-term distribution of stress over the joint surfaces. Thirty-six specimens of the human elbow joint were investigated by computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry(More)
Since the work of Pauwels and his successors, it has been possible to use the distribution of subchondral bone density within a joint surface as a metric parameter that can reflect the principal long-term stress acting upon a joint. However, the x-ray densitometry method he employed cannot be applied to living people. A procedure was therefore developed(More)
The deformational behavior of articular cartilage has been investigated in confined and unconfined compression experiments and indentation tests, but to date there exist no reliable data on the in situ deformation of the cartilage during static loading. The objective of the current study was to perform a systematic study into cartilage compression of intact(More)
Quantitative assessment of cartilage volume and thickness in a formalin-alcohol fixed specimen of a human patella was conducted with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as it is still unclear whether the morphology of normal and damaged cartilage can be accurately demonstrated with this technique. MR imaging was carried out at 1.0 T (section thickness 2 mm,(More)
In 16 cadaver humeroulnar joints, the distribution of subchondral mineralisation was assessed by CT osteoabsorptiometry and the position and size of the contact areas by polyether casting under loads of 10 N to 1280 N. Ulnas with separate olecranon and coronoid cartilaginous surfaces showed matching bicentric patterns of mineralisation. Under small loads(More)
To get information on the stresses acting on the shoulder joint, the distribution of subchondral mineralisation was examined by means of CT-Osteo-absorptiometry in the glenoid cavity in healthy people, athletes and patients. In young persons two density maxima are found ventrally and dorsally older persons, however, show a centrally located maximum which(More)
The objective of this paper was to analyse sex differences of the thickness of the subchondral mineralised tissue zone (SMZ), and to find out whether systematic changes of SMZ thickness are associated with naturally occurring, non-full-thickness cartilage lesions of human patellae. In 32 methyl-methacrylate-embedded specimens (16 normal, 8 with focal(More)
This investigation is based on measurements of 60 macerated adult European skulls from the Alexander-Ecker Collection at the Anatomy Department of the University of Freiburg. Computer tomographical (CT) and anatomical measurements were compared to assess the accuracy of the CT representation of osseous structures. Nine structures were examined: the optic(More)