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Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are known to act as teratogens; however, there is still uncertainty about the relative risk for birth defects and the most sensitive period. In a multi-centre (n = 12), observational, prospective study we compared 666 pregnant women exposed to phenprocoumon (n = 280), acenocoumarol (n = 226), fluindione (n = 99), warfarin (n =(More)
UICC stage II and III colorectal cancers (CRC) differ fundamentally in prognosis and therapeutic concepts. To analyze differential gene expression between both stages and to establish a relationship between molecular background and clinical presentation, tumor material from 36 unselected consecutive patients presenting with sporadic CRC, 18 UICC stage II(More)
MOTIVATION Several authors have studied expression in gene sets with specific goals: overrepresentation of interesting genes in functional groups, predictive power for class membership and searches for groups where the constituent genes show coordinated changes in expression under the experimental conditions. The purpose of this article is to follow the(More)
A combination of ethinylestradiol and 10mg norethisterone under the brand names of Duogynon (Germany) or Primodos (UK) was used as a pregnancy test until the 1970s. Until very recently there was continuing public concern about the safety of these drugs and legal proceedings were instituted against the medicinal authorization holder. Given the lack of(More)
BACKGROUND A(H1N1)v2009 influenza vaccination of pregnant women was a challenge for health care providers, as little safety data were available. METHODS We prospectively followed the pregnancies of women who were vaccinated at any time during pregnancy or ≤ 4 weeks prior to conception and compared these outcomes to a control cohort matched by the(More)
There are only few studies with conflicting results on pregnancy outcome after paternal exposure to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. In our study, pregnancy outcome of 115 prospectively followed pregnancies after paternal exposure to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine is compared to a control group of 341 pregnancies. The rate of major malformations was not(More)
Clinical data are urgently needed to specify the risk and safety of drug use during pregnancy. For several reasons pregnant women are usually excluded from clinical studies. Therefore, observational data are the main source of knowledge, cohort studies as well as case-control studies. Disadvantages of cohort studies based on observational data have been(More)
BACKGROUND Spontaneous abortion rates are of general interest when investigating pregnancy outcome. In most studies observations are left truncated as pregnant women enter with a delay of several weeks after conception. Apart from spontaneous abortion pregnancy may end in induced abortion or live birth. These outcomes are considered as competing events(More)
OBJECTIVE Apart from thalidomide, retinoids like isotretinoin are the strongest teratogens in humans known today. The overall risk of birth defects is estimated as up to 30% after exposure during embryogenesis. In spite of well established pregnancy prevention programs, pregnancies still occur during isotretinoin therapy in many countries including Germany.(More)
OBJECTIVE High-dose methotrexate (MTX) exposure during pregnancy is associated with embryopathy. The teratogenic potential of MTX at dosages typically used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion, major birth defects, elective termination of pregnancy, shortened(More)