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Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) mediate key cellular functions such as gene expression and its regulation. Whereas most RNP enzymes are stable in composition and harbor preformed active sites, the spliceosome, which removes noncoding introns from precursor messenger RNAs (pre-mRNAs), follows fundamentally different strategies. In order to provide both accuracy to(More)
HIV-1 Rev protein directs nuclear export of pre-mRNAs and mRNAs containing its binding site, the Rev response element (RRE). To define how Rev acts, we used conjugates between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and peptides comprising the Rev activation domain (BSA-R). BSA-R inhibited Rev-mediated nuclear RNA export, whereas a mutant activation domain peptide(More)
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are the mediators of mRNA degradation in the process of RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we describe a human biochemical system that recapitulates siRNA-mediated target RNA degradation. By using affinity-tagged siRNAs, we demonstrate that a single-stranded siRNA resides in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) together with(More)
An essential cellular factor for nuclear mRNA export called Mex67p which has homologous proteins in human and Caenorhabditis elegans was identified through its genetic interaction with nucleoporin Nup85p. In the thermosensitive mex67-5 mutant, poly(A)+ RNA accumulates in intranuclear foci shortly after shift to the restrictive temperature, but NLS-mediated(More)
In eukaryotic cells, freshly synthesized messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) contains stretches of non-coding RNA that must be excised before the RNA can be translated into protein. Their removal is catalysed by the spliceosome, a large complex formed when a number of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) bind sequentially to the pre-mRNA. The first snRNP(More)
The box C/D snoRNAs function in directing 2'-O-methylation and/or as chaperones in the processing of ribosomal RNA. We show here that Snu13p (15.5 kD in human), a component of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP, is also associated with the box C/D snoRNAs. Indeed, genetic depletion of Snu13p in yeast leads to a major defect in RNA metabolism. The box C/D motif can be(More)
The U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) involved in pre-mRNA splicing contain seven Sm proteins (B/B', D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G) in common, which assemble around the Sm site present in four of the major spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These proteins share a common sequence motif in two segments, Sm1 and Sm2,(More)
In the assembly of a prespliceosome, U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) functions in pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing together with splicing factors (SFs) 3a, SF3b, and several other proteins. The 17S but not the 12S form of U2 snRNP is active in splicing-complex formation. Here it is shown that the SF3a subunits correspond to three of the 17S U2(More)
RNA silencing processes are guided by small RNAs known as siRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) . They reside in ribonucleoprotein complexes, which guide the cleavage of complementary mRNAs or affect stability and translation of partial complementary mRNAs . Argonaute (Ago) proteins are at the heart of silencing effector complexes and bind the single-stranded siRNA(More)
We developed a method, named GraFix, that considerably improves sample quality for structure determination by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). GraFix uses a glycerol gradient centrifugation step in which the complexes are centrifuged into an increasing concentration of a chemical fixation reagent to prevent aggregation and to stabilize(More)