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HIV-1 Rev protein directs nuclear export of pre-mRNAs and mRNAs containing its binding site, the Rev response element (RRE). To define how Rev acts, we used conjugates between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and peptides comprising the Rev activation domain (BSA-R). BSA-R inhibited Rev-mediated nuclear RNA export, whereas a mutant activation domain peptide(More)
An essential cellular factor for nuclear mRNA export called Mex67p which has homologous proteins in human and Caenorhabditis elegans was identified through its genetic interaction with nucleoporin Nup85p. In the thermosensitive mex67-5 mutant, poly(A)+ RNA accumulates in intranuclear foci shortly after shift to the restrictive temperature, but NLS-mediated(More)
The U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) involved in pre-mRNA splicing contain seven Sm proteins (B/B', D1, D2, D3, E, F, and G) in common, which assemble around the Sm site present in four of the major spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). These proteins share a common sequence motif in two segments, Sm1 and Sm2,(More)
How splicing factors are recruited to nascent transcripts in the nucleus in order to assemble spliceosomes on newly synthesised pre-mRNAs is unknown. To address this question, we compared the intranuclear trafficking kinetics of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNP) and non-snRNP proteins in the presence and absence of splicing activity.(More)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease of spinal motor neurons caused by reduced levels of functional survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein. SMN is part of a macromolecular complex that contains the SMN-interacting protein 1 (SIP1) and spliceosomal Sm proteins. Although it is clear that SIP1 as a component of this complex is(More)
The signal requirement for the nuclear import of U1 RNA in somatic cells from different species was investigated by microinjection of both digoxygenin-labeled wild type and mutant U1 RNA molecules and in vitro reconstituted U1 snRNPs. U1 RNA was shown to be targeted to the nucleus by a temperature-dependent process that requires the prior assembly of RNPs(More)
The requirements for nuclear targeting of a number of U snRNAs have been studied by analyzing the behavior of in vitro-generated transcripts after microinjection into the cytoplasm of Xenopus oocytes. Like the previously studied U1 snRNA, U2 snRNA is excluded from the nucleus when it does not have the 2,2,7mGpppN cap structure typical of the RNA polymerase(More)
Importin beta is a major mediator of import into the cell nucleus. Importin beta binds cargo molecules either directly or via two types of adapter molecules, importin alpha, for import of proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal (NLS), or snurportin 1, for import of m3G-capped U snRNPs. Both adapters have an NH2-terminal importin beta-binding(More)
The U1 snRNP is essential for recognition of the pre-mRNA 5'-splice site and the subsequent assembly of the spliceosome. Yeast U1 snRNP is considerably more complex than its metazoan counterpart, which suggests possible differences between yeast and metazoa in early splicing events. We have comprehensively analyzed the composition of yeast U1 snRNPs using a(More)
Cytoplasmic assembly of Sm-class small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) is a central process in eukaryotic gene expression. A large macromolecular complex containing the survival of motor neurons (SMN) protein is required for proper snRNP assembly in vivo. Defects in SMN function lead to a human neuromuscular disorder, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). SMN(More)