Reinhard Gruber

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We studied the possible regulatory effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1alpha,25-(OH)2D3] on cytokine production and differentiation of subsets of CD4+ [T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2] and CD8+ [T cytotoxic 1 (Tc1) and Tc2] lymphocytes at the single cell level. PBMC from healthy donors were cultured with or without 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 for up to 21 days. On(More)
Clinical experience gives rise to the impression that there are differences in fracture healing in different age groups. It is evident that fractures heal more efficiently in children than in adults. However, minimal objective knowledge exists to evaluate this assumption. Temporal, spatial, and cellular quantitative and qualitative interrelationships, as(More)
Localization studies and genetic evidence have implicated cartilage-derived morphogenetic proteins-1, -2 (CDMP-1 and CDMP-2), and osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1) in the osteochondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells during embryonic development and in postnatal life. Based on their expression pattern and the evidence that periosteum contains(More)
Sclerostin is a Wnt signalling antagonist that controls bone metabolism. Sclerostin is expressed by osteocytes and cementocytes; however, its role in the formation of dental structures remains unclear. Here, we analysed the mandibles of sclerostin knockout mice to determine the influence of sclerostin on dental structures and dimensions using(More)
In mouse bone marrow primary cultures, the formation of osteoclast-like, i.e. tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)- and calcitonin receptor-positive multinucleated cells (MNC), when induced by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25(OH)2D3), can be suppressed by 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2), whereas 17alpha-E2 is without any effect. 17beta-E2, above(More)
Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), an extract of fetal porcine enamel, and TGF-β can both suppress adipogenic differentiation. However, there have been no studies that functionally link the role of EMD and TGF-β in vitro. Herein, we examined whether TGF-β signaling contributes to EMD-induced suppression of adipogenic differentiation. Adipogenesis was studied(More)
BACKGROUND Whole saliva provokes a substantial pro-inflammatory response in gingival fibroblasts. This raises the question whether the salivary pellet, which is used for diagnostic purposes, also has a pro-inflammatory capacity and, if yes, what the underlying mechanisms at the molecular level are. METHODS We examined the ability of extensively washed(More)
1. The effect of disopyramide on the maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) and the sodium current of rabbit cardiac Purkinje fibres was studied with the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. 2. In the absence of stimulation the drug did not cause block at membrane potentials ranging from -100 to -65 mV. Use-dependent block of Vmax was most pronounced at(More)
Autologous bone grafts are widely used in oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthopedics, and traumatology. Autologous bone grafts not only replace missing bone, they also support the complex process of bone regeneration. This favorable behavior of autografts is attributed to the three characteristics: osteoconductivity, osteogenicity, and osteoinductivity.(More)
BACKGROUND A low level of education and the migration background of parents are associated with the development of caries in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a higher educational level of parents can overcome risks for the development of caries in immigrants in Vienna, Austria. METHODS The educational level of the parents, the(More)