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In general orthopedics the relationship between postural behavior and skeletal deformities has long been recognized. The primary therapeutic problem in functional orthopedics is to overcome functional disorders. In this article the applicability of this functional concept to orofacial orthopedics is discussed on the basis of a longitudinal study of skeletal(More)
The effect of the Fränkel appliance was evaluated in patients with mandibular retrusion who were monitored during an active treatment phase of approximately 14 months in the early mixed dentition. The sample treated with the Fränkel appliance consisted of 120 subjects. In 60, the initial construction bite was taken with the incisors in an end-to-end(More)
An occipital reference system, located outside the anterior half of the skull, has been designed which reveals sagittal as well as vertical relationships among facial components. The anatomic structures chosen had consistent behavior during growth, were located close to the midsagittal plane, and could be identified in a lateral cephalograph. Among the(More)