Learn More
Levodopa/carbidopa (LD/CD) application elevates total plasma homocysteine (thcys). We determined thcys-, LD- and 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) concentrations in 28 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on a LD/CD duodenal gel treatment. We found a distinct thcys increase (29.52 ± 28.98 μmol/l [median ± SD]) above the 15 μmol/l threshold and a significant (R =(More)
BACKGROUND Pain is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. We investigated the analgesic efficacy of prolonged-release oxycodone-naloxone (OXN PR) in patients with Parkinson's disease and chronic, severe pain. METHODS We did this phase 2 study in 47 secondary care centres in the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Spain, and the(More)
Early pre-motor symptoms (also frequently termed "non-motor" symptoms) in Parkinson's disease (PD), which precede the onset of motor symptoms, are being increasingly recognized by clinicians. Non-motor symptoms in the pre-motor phase of PD include impaired olfaction (hyposmia), sleep disturbances (i.e., radid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, daytime(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of piribedil on vigilance and cognitive performance in patients with Parkinson disease experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness on pramipexole or ropinirole. METHODS In this 11-week randomized, active-controlled, rater-blinded phase III study, eligible patients were randomly assigned to(More)
There are a large variety of dopamine agonists available. Especially de novo patients are treated with dopamine agonists to avoid dyskinesia. Dopamine agonists can be subdivided into ergoline and non-ergoline derivatives. This distinction raises the question whether there are differences in the effects to treat symptoms, not only in the side effects between(More)
BACKGROUND Aim of this study was to assess the direct costs of Parkinson's disease (PD) within a 3-month period (i.e. the accounting period for the German statutory health insurance) in 12 neurological outpatient practices in Berlin during 2006. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 425 patients (age 69.1+/-9.3 years, 185 females) were recruited, and(More)
Reliable, language-independent, short screening instruments to test for cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) remain rare, despite the high number of patients affected by cognitive decline. We developed a new, short screening instrument, the Faces Symbol Test (FST), and compared its diagnostic test characteristics with a composite of(More)