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A microplate fluorimetric assay was developed for measuring potential activities of extracellular enzymes of individual ectomycorrhizal (EM) roots using methylumbelliferone (MU)-labelled fluorescent substrate analogues and microsieves to minimise damage due to manipulation of excised mycorrhizal roots. Control experiments revealed that enzyme activities(More)
Nitrogen isotope values (δ 15 N) are higher in ectomycorrhizal fungi than in their plant hosts but the wide variability in δ 15 N among sporocarps of different fungal taxa is unexplained. We propose that fungal δ 15 N reflects sequestration of fungal nitrogen to build fungal biomass, and should accordingly reflect fungal exploration strategies and hyphal(More)
DNA-based quantification methods such as real-time TaqMan PCR allow a rapid and highly sensitive species-specific quantification of isolated fungal DNA material, but most quantification systems are only able to measure relative amounts of biomass or biomass changes during different treatments. In this experiment, an already established DNA quantification(More)
The vertical niche differentiation of genera of ectomycorrhiza (ECM) was assessed in a 17-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) plantation on a mountainous dolomitic site (1,050 m above sea level) of the Bavarian Limestone Alps. We determined ECM anatomotypes, recorded the abundance of corresponding ECM root tips and classified them into groups(More)
Oak woodlands in the Mediterranean basin have been traditionally converted into agro-silvo-pastoral systems and exemplified sustainable land use in Europe. In Portugal, in line with the trend of other European countries, profound changes in management options during the twentieth century have led to landscape simplification. Landscapes are dynamic and the(More)
The genus Ramaria is composed of several subgenera that often correspond to specific trophic strategies. Because carbon and nitrogen isotopes can be used to assess fungal trophic status and nitrogen sources, we accordingly carried out an extensive survey of isotopic patterns in archived specimens of Ramaria from Germany and other locations. Isotopic(More)
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus has long been known as an ectomycorrhizal fungus, formerly designated with the artificial binomen Piceirhiza gelatinosa. Recently, it has been found to be abundant and very frequent under double ambient ozone free air fumigation of mature Norway spruce trees. As it has already been reported that this fungus can form intercellular(More)
Acknowledgements First and foremost I would like to thank my wife Paras for her willingness to sacrifice a normal private life for the sake of research, and her never-ending patience during my field trips, when the two of us were separated for weeks and sometimes months. I am deeply grateful to my supervisor Reinhard Agerer, who didn't just allow me, but(More)
Regulation of resource allocation in plants is the key to integrate understanding of metabolism and resource flux across the whole plant. The challenge is to understand trade-offs as plants balance allocation between different and conflicting demands, e.g., for staying competitive with neighbours and ensuring defence against parasites. Related hypothesis(More)