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All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct(More)
Exposure to microbes during early childhood is associated with protection from immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Here, we show that in germ-free (GF) mice, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells accumulate in the colonic lamina propria and lung, resulting in increased morbidity in models of IBD and allergic(More)
A revision of the nearly 8-year-old World Health Organization classification of the lymphoid neoplasms and the accompanying monograph is being published. It reflects a consensus among hematopathologists, geneticists, and clinicians regarding both updates to current entities as well as the addition of a limited number of new provisional entities. The(More)
The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the(More)
Familial cylindromatosis is an autosomal dominant genetic predisposition to multiple tumours of the skin appendages. The susceptibility gene (CYLD) has previously been localized to chromosome 16q and has the genetic attributes of a tumour-suppressor gene (recessive oncogene). Here we have identified CYLD by detecting germline mutations in 21 cylindromatosis(More)
BACKGROUND The distinction between Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma is unclear. We used transcriptional and genomic profiling to define Burkitt's lymphoma more precisely and to distinguish subgroups in other types of mature aggressive B-cell lymphomas. METHODS We performed gene-expression profiling using Affymetrix U133A GeneChips with(More)
The prognosis of germinal center-derived B-cell (GCB) lymphomas, including follicular lymphoma and diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), strongly depends on age. Children have a more favorable outcome than adults. It is not known whether this is because of differences in host characteristics, treatment protocols, or tumor biology, including the presence of(More)
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas most frequently involve the gastrointestinal tract and are the most common subset of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Here we describe overexpression of BCL10, a novel apoptotic signalling gene that encodes an amino-terminal caspase recruitment domain (CARD), in MALT lymphomas due to the recurrent(More)
BACKGROUND The therapeutic use of multipotent stem cells depends on their differentiation potential, which has been shown to be variable for different populations. These differences are likely to be the result of key changes in their epigenetic profiles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS to address this issue, we have investigated the levels of epigenetic(More)
Structural genome aberrations are frequently associated with highly variable congenital phenotypes involving mental retardation and developmental delay. Although some of these aberrations may result in recognizable phenotypes, a high degree of phenotypic variability often complicates a comprehensive clinical and genetic diagnosis. We describe four patients(More)