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All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct(More)
The human genome is by far the largest genome to be sequenced, and its size and complexity present many challenges for sequence assembly. The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium constructed a map of the whole genome to enable the selection of clones for sequencing and for the accurate assembly of the genome sequence. Here we report the(More)
Exposure to microbes during early childhood is associated with protection from immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Here, we show that in germ-free (GF) mice, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells accumulate in the colonic lamina propria and lung, resulting in increased morbidity in models of IBD and allergic(More)
PURPOSE [corrected] To describe the clinical and genetic findings of seven additional pedigrees with autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE). METHODS A personal and family history was obtained from each affected and unaffected member, along with a physical and neurologic examination. Routine and sleep EEGs, computed tomography (CT), or(More)
Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (EPT; OMIM 600512) is a form of epilepsy characterized by partial seizures, usually preceded by auditory signs. The gene for this disorder has been mapped by linkage studies to chromosomal region 10q24. Here we show that mutations in the LGI1 gene segregate with EPT in two families affected by this disorder. Both(More)
Monozygotic (MZ) twins are partially concordant for most complex diseases, including autoimmune disorders. Whereas phenotypic concordance can be used to study heritability, discordance suggests the role of non-genetic factors. In autoimmune diseases, environmentally driven epigenetic changes are thought to contribute to their etiology. Here we report the(More)
BACKGROUND The therapeutic use of multipotent stem cells depends on their differentiation potential, which has been shown to be variable for different populations. These differences are likely to be the result of key changes in their epigenetic profiles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS to address this issue, we have investigated the levels of epigenetic(More)
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process leading to parent-of-origin-specific DNA methylation and gene expression. To date, approximately 60 imprinted human genes are known. Based on genome-wide methylation analysis of a patient with multiple imprinting defects, we have identified a differentially methylated CpG island in intron 2 of the retinoblastoma(More)
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying chromosomal translocations in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we investigated the nature and extent of immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) in these tumors. We used Southern blotting to detect legitimate and illegitimate CSR events in tumor samples of the activated B cell-like (ABC), germinal center B(More)
Seizure disorders of the rolandic region comprise a spectrum of different epilepsy syndromes ranging from benign rolandic epilepsy to more severe seizure disorders including atypical benign partial epilepsy/pseudo-Lennox syndrome,electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Centrotemporal spikes are the unifying(More)