Matthias Wittstock10
Johannes Prudlo9
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Associative stimulation has been shown to enhance excitability in the human motor cortex (Stefan et al. 2000); however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. An interventional paired associative stimulation (IPAS) was employed consisting of repetitive application of single afferent electric stimuli, delivered to the right median nerve, paired(More)
Animal experiments suggest that cortical sensory representations may be remodelled as a consequence of changing synaptic efficacy by timing-dependent associative neuronal activity. Here we describe a timing-based associative form of plasticity in human somatosensory cortex. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) was performed by combining repetitive median(More)
Synaptic plasticity is conspicuously dependent on the temporal order of the pre- and postsynaptic activity. Human motor cortical excitability can be increased by a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. Here we show that it can also be decreased by minimally changing the interval between the two associative stimuli. Corticomotor excitability of the(More)
In idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) approximately 60 % of the nigrostriatal neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) are degenerated before neurologists can establish the diagnosis according to the widely accepted clinical diagnostic criteria. It is conceivable that neuroprotective therapy starting at such an 'advanced stage' of the disease will fail to(More)
To investigate whether transcranial brain sonography (TCS) discriminates different courses of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), 101 patients with clinically definite PD were studied. In four patients, TCS was not possible due to insufficient acoustic temporal bone windows. Substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity was found in 96% of assessable patients.(More)
BACKGROUND Pioglitazone, an oral anti-diabetic that stimulates the PPAR-gamma transcription factor, increased survival of mice with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We performed a phase II, double blind, multicentre, placebo controlled trial of pioglitazone in ALS patients under riluzole. 219 patients were randomly assigned(More)
In rat models of Parkinson's disease, injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into different areas of the basal ganglia result in dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra. The extent and time course of the dopaminergic lesions varies between the models. While the effects on neurons have been extensively studied, little is known about the(More)
Substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity is a characteristic transcranial sonography (TCS) finding in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. SN hyperechogenicity, found also in approximately 10% of healthy adults, was related to a subclinical malfunction of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system on PET studies and is, therefore, thought to represent a risk marker(More)
This is a review on the use of injections of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal dystonias. Disorders covered include cranial dystonia, cervical dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, and focal hand dystonia. Considered are clinical aspects, alternative treatment strategies and principles of use of botulinum toxin injections.
Clinical, genetic, and pathological findings suggest a close relationship between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We studied the patterns of cortical atrophy across the spectrum between ALS and ALS-FTD. A surface-based morphometry analysis based on an age- and sex-matched sample of 81 ALS patients and 62 healthy(More)