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Current models of motor cortical plasticity, developed in studies on experimental animals, emphasize the importance of the conjoint activity of somatosensory afferents and intrinsic motor cortical circuits. The hypothesis that an enduring change in excitability in the cortical output circuitry can be induced in the human motor cortex by a paired-stimulation(More)
Associative stimulation has been shown to enhance excitability in the human motor cortex (Stefan et al. 2000); however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. An interventional paired associative stimulation (IPAS) was employed consisting of repetitive application of single afferent electric stimuli, delivered to the right median nerve, paired(More)
Synaptic plasticity is conspicuously dependent on the temporal order of the pre- and postsynaptic activity. Human motor cortical excitability can be increased by a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. Here we show that it can also be decreased by minimally changing the interval between the two associative stimuli. Corticomotor excitability of the(More)
Animal experiments suggest that cortical sensory representations may be remodelled as a consequence of changing synaptic efficacy by timing-dependent associative neuronal activity. Here we describe a timing-based associative form of plasticity in human somatosensory cortex. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) was performed by combining repetitive median(More)
1. Blockade of uptake carriers of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been shown to modulate inhibition in cortical slices of experimental animals, although little is known about this mechanism in vivo and, in particular, in humans. 2. The effects of blockade of GABA uptake were studied using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in humans. In eight(More)
We studied the role of remote metabolic depressions and pyramidal tract involvement regarding motor recovery following a first hemiparetic ischemic stroke. In 23 patients the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRGlu) was measured with positron emission tomography and the location and spatial extent of the stroke lesions were assessed by magnetic(More)
Numerous clinical studies on patients after hemispherectomy (HS) have provided clear evidence that two distinct groups can be recognized on the basis of the quality of their motor functions after operation. One of these consists of cases where HS was performed after normal brain maturation, the other of patients where the removed hemisphere was damaged(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed over the motor and visual cortex with the Novametrix 12-cm diameter stimulation coil. The influence of coil position on the size of electromyographic responses and on the intensity and position of phosphenes in the binocular visual field was studied. Furthermore, it was investigated whether stimulation over(More)
1. Non-invasive mapping by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is frequently used to investigate cortical motor function in the intact and injured human brain. We examined how TMS-derived maps relate to the underlying cortical anatomy and to cortical maps generated by functional imaging studies. 2. The centres of gravity (COGs) of TMS maps of the(More)
The following sequences of two single movements were examined in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and compared with the performance of 9 normal subjects of similar age. Isometric opposition of thumb and fingers to a force of 30 N ('squeeze'), followed by isotonic elbow flexion ('flex') through 15 degrees with the same arm. 'Squeeze' with the left hand(More)