Reiner Banken

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Since the Lalonde Report in 1974 on ‘‘health beyond health care’’ in Canada, awareness of non-health sector determinants of health has been increasing (1). The World health report 2000 proposed population health as a central objective of health care systems (2) but there are few signs of the concrete mechanisms for intersectoral action that this requires.(More)
AIM This report considers the introduction of new technology and the implications for patient safety. METHODS AND DISCUSSION A distinction is made between 'conceptually' new and 'contextually' new technology. The life cycle of technology from development to routine use is discussed and the key role for regulation, health technology assessment, clinical(More)
All rights in this document are reserved by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The document may nevertheless be freely reviewed, abstracted, reproduced or translated into any other language (but not for sale or for use in conjunction with commercial purposes) provided that full acknowledgement is given to the source. For the use of the WHO emblem,(More)
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune liver disease that mainly affects middle-aged women. Obeticholic acid (OCA), which was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for PBC treatment, has demonstrated positive effects on biochemical markers of liver function. Our objective was to evaluate the long-term clinical(More)
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