Reinaldo Castro

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A method for the direct determination of paraquat, diquat, chlormequat and difenzoquat in water samples, using an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system was developed. No sample preparation was required and the detection limits were below the European Union maximum residue levels. The chromatographic separation(More)
An ion-pair on-line solid-phase extraction procedure using C8 extraction disks, suitable for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis is developed to determine quaternary ammonium herbicides (quats) in water samples. The separation of these compounds was performed using ion-pair chromatography with heptafluorobutyric acid (15 mM, pH 3.3) and(More)
High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization) has been used to characterize some quaternary ammonium herbicides (quats). The separation of these compounds was carried out using ion-pair chromatography with heptafluorobutyric acid (15 mM, pH(More)
We report >50-mJ Q-switched energy output from a 2.09-microm Ho:YAG oscillator, resonantly pumped at 1.9-microm by a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser. We demonstrate a Q-switched-to-normal-mode extraction efficiency of 100% at an output energy of 30 mJ and over 64% at the 50-mJ output level. Operating at 50 mJ (60 Hz) of output, a pulse width of 14 ns is achieved(More)
An ion-pair liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of chlormequat in fruit samples. A solid-phase extraction cleanup procedure with C18 cartridges was used. Sample preparation was simple and the achieved detection limit (0.03 mg/kg) and quantitation limit (0.08 mg/kg) were below the maximum(More)
Convex combinations of long memory estimates using the same data observed at different sampling rates can decrease the standard deviation of the estimates, at the cost of inducing a slight bias. The convex combination of such estimates requires a preliminary correction for the bias observed at lower sampling rates, reported by Souza and Smith (2002).(More)
Evidence for a second main-sequence turn-off in a deep colour-magnitude diagram of NGC 1868 is presented. The data were obtained with HST/WFPC2 and reach down to m555 ≃ 25. Besides the usual τ ≃ 0.8 Gyr turn-off found in previous analyses, another possible turn-off is seen at m555 ≃ 21 (MV ≃ 2.5), which is consistent with an age of τ ≃ 3 Gyrs. This CMD(More)
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