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The search for unifying properties of complex networks is popular, challenging, and important. For modeling approaches that focus on robustness and fragility as unifying concepts, the Internet is an especially attractive case study, mainly because its applications are ubiquitous and pervasive, and widely available exposition exists at every level of detail.(More)
Although the " scale-free " literature is large and growing, it gives neither a precise definition of scale-free graphs nor rigorous proofs of many of their claimed properties. In fact, it is easily shown that the existing theory has many inherent contradictions and verifiably false claims. In this paper, we propose a new, mathematically precise, and(More)
It has been claimed that protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are scale-free, and that identifying high-degree "hub" proteins reveals important features of PPI networks. In this paper, we evaluate the claims that PPI node degree sequences follow a power law, a necessary condition for networks to be scale-free. We provide two PPI network examples which(More)
High-level, mathematically precise descriptions of the global organisation of complex metabolic networks are necessary for understanding the global structure of metabolic networks, the interpretation and integration of large amounts of biologic data (sequences, various -omics) and ultimately for rational design of therapies for disease processes. Metabolic(More)
Inflammatory cells play important roles in progression of solid neoplasms including ovarian cancers. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to angiogenesis and immune suppression by modulating microenvironment. Ovarian cancer develops occasionally on the bases of endometriosis, a chronic inflammatory disease. We have recently demonstrated(More)
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an inherited disorder associated with a germline mutation of the folliculin gene (FLCN). The affected families have a high risk for developing multiple renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Diagnostic markers that distinguish between FLCN-related RCC and sporadic RCC have not been investigated, and many patients with undiagnosed BHD(More)
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an inherited disorder caused by genetic mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene. Individuals with BHD have multiple pulmonary cysts and are at a high risk for developing renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Currently, little information is available about whether pulmonary cysts are absolutely benign or if the lungs are at an(More)
BACKGROUND Uterine serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) is an immediate precursor of invasive carcinoma. The majority of stage IA SEICs are curable, but those with latent peritoneal metastasis and/or capillary lymphatics invasion may have poor prognoses Careful pathologic staging is thus needed to predict the risk of recurrence and to(More)