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The search for unifying properties of complex networks is popular, challenging, and important. For modeling approaches that focus on robustness and fragility as unifying concepts, the Internet is an especially attractive case study, mainly because its applications are ubiquitous and pervasive, and widely available exposition exists at every level of detail.(More)
Although the " scale-free " literature is large and growing, it gives neither a precise definition of scale-free graphs nor rigorous proofs of many of their claimed properties. In fact, it is easily shown that the existing theory has many inherent contradictions and verifiably false claims. In this paper, we propose a new, mathematically precise, and(More)
It has been claimed that protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are scale-free, and that identifying high-degree "hub" proteins reveals important features of PPI networks. In this paper, we evaluate the claims that PPI node degree sequences follow a power law, a necessary condition for networks to be scale-free. We provide two PPI network examples which(More)
High-level, mathematically precise descriptions of the global organisation of complex metabolic networks are necessary for understanding the global structure of metabolic networks, the interpretation and integration of large amounts of biologic data (sequences, various -omics) and ultimately for rational design of therapies for disease processes. Metabolic(More)
A phylogenetic study based on sequence analysis of the beta-tubulin, hydrophobin and calmodulin genes was performed in 19 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species isolated from clinical specimens in Japan. Correlations between detailed morphology and phylogeny were examined. Species in the section Fumigati were divided into five clades: clade I,(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic basidiomycete with a defined sexual cycle involving mating between haploid yeast cells with a transient diploid state. We examined F1 progeny from a crossing between the urease-negative strain (environmental isolate, serotype A, mating type alfa, haploid) and a tester strain (B 3502 from NIH of USA; urease-positive,(More)
The progression of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was temporally monitored and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction of P. carinii-specific DNA in oral swabs and lung homogenates from infected rats. DNA levels correlated with the number of P. carinii organisms in the rats' lungs, as enumerated by microscopic methods. This report is the first of(More)
Inflammatory cells play important roles in progression of solid neoplasms including ovarian cancers. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) contribute to angiogenesis and immune suppression by modulating microenvironment. Ovarian cancer develops occasionally on the bases of endometriosis, a chronic inflammatory disease. We have recently demonstrated(More)