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Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an important acute gastroenteritis pathogen in humans. Consumption of raw or inadequately cooked clams is one transmission route of human SaV. Sixty individual clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) were from market and tested for human SaVs using two nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(More)
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. HuNoV replication studies have been hampered by the inability to grow the virus in cultured cells. The HuNoV genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecule with three open reading frames (ORFs). We established a reverse genetics system driven by a mammalian promoter(More)
Human noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Although histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been implicated in the initial binding of NoV, the mechanism of that binding before internalization is not clear. To determine the involvement of NoVs and HBGAs in cell binding, we examined the localization of NoV virus-like(More)
Sapoviruses, members of the family Caliciviridae, are genetically highly diverse. We report here the first complete genome sequence of a genogroup V genotype 2 sapovirus strain, NGY-1, detected from fecal samples of a suspected foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak, determined using a metagenomic sequencing approach.
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since the discovery of human norovirus (HuNoV), an efficient and reproducible norovirus replication system has not been established in cultured cells. Although limited amounts of virus particles can be produced when the HuNoV genome is directly transfected into cells, the HuNoV cycle of(More)
Laboratory adaptation of viruses is an essential technique for basic virology research, including the generation of attenuated vaccine strains, although the principles of cell adaptation remain largely unknown. Deep sequencing of murine norovirus (MuNoV) S7 during serial passages in RAW264.7 cells showed that the frequencies of viral variants were altered(More)
Rotaviruses C (RVCs) circulate worldwide as an enteric pathogen in both humans and animals. Most studies of their genetic diversity focus on the VP7 and VP4 genes, but the complete genomes of 18 human RVCs have been described in independent studies. The genetic background of the Far East Asian RVCs is different than other human RVCs that were found in India(More)
Rotavirus A (RVA) is the predominant etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. Recently, unusual G9P[4] rotavirus strains emerged with high prevalence in many countries. Such intergenogroup reassortant strains highlight the ongoing spread of unusual rotavirus strains throughout Asia. This study was undertaken to determine the(More)
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