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Influenza A viruses cause recurrent outbreaks at local or global scale with potentially severe consequences for human health and the global economy. Recently, a new strain of influenza A virus was detected that causes disease in and transmits among humans, probably owing to little or no pre-existing immunity to the new strain. On 11 June 2009 the World(More)
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common etiological agent of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants. We report the molecular epidemiology of HRSV in Niigata, Japan, over six successive seasons (from 2001 to 2007) and the emerging genotypes of HRSV subgroup A (HRSV-A) strains. A total of 488 HRSV samples were obtained from 1,103(More)
Phylogenetic analysis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) group B genotype BA strains from the 2002-2003 to 2009-2010 seasons collected in Niigata, Japan, revealed four distinct clusters, designated new BA genotypes BA7, BA8, BA9, and BA10. These new genotypes were not associated with large outbreaks in the community.
At present, three licensed antiviral influenza agents are available in Japan: amantadine, zanamivir, and oseltamivir. These antiviral agents can be used for controlling and preventing influenza, but they are not a substitute for vaccination. Amantadine is an antiviral drug with activity against influenza A viruses, but not influenza B viruses. Persons who(More)
BACKGROUND A substantial increase in oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) influenza viruses was reported in Europe in late 2007. OBJECTIVES To monitor the antiviral susceptibility profile of human A(H1N1) influenza viruses in Japan during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons. STUDY DESIGN Viruses were obtained from respiratory samples of patients with influenza(More)
In eight successive seasons (2001 to 2009), a total of 726 human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infections from a total of 1,560 children with acute lower respiratory tract illness were identified. Molecular analysis of the attachment (G) protein gene confirmed that 52 (7.8%) children were infected more than once with any of the 3 genotypes of HRSV-A(More)
To study the molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a community, children with acute respiratory symptoms at a pediatric outpatient clinic in Niigata, Japan, were analyzed over three seasons from November 2001 to July 2004. Of 499 nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens, 185 (37.1%) were RSV positive, and only 8 (4.5%) of 177 patients were(More)
Guidelines available to school administrators to support school closure decisions during influenza outbreaks are usually not evidence-based. Using empirical data on absentee rates of elementary school students in Japan, we developed a simple and practical algorithm for determining the optimal timing of school closures for control of influenza outbreaks.
BACKGROUND Little is known about whether neuraminidase inhibitors are effective for children infected with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses. METHODS Children aged 15 years and younger having influenza-like illness and who visited outpatient clinics within 48 hours of fever onset were enrolled from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 influenza seasons in(More)