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Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is a unique CDK, the activity of which can be detected in postmitotic neurons. To date, CDK5 purified from mammalian brains has always been associated with a truncated form of the 35-kDa major brain specific activator (p35, also known as nck5a) of CDK5, known as p25. In this study, we report that p35 can be cleaved to p25(More)
Vectorial transport of bile acids across hepatocytes is a major driving force for bile flow, and bile acid retention in the liver causes hepatotoxicity. The basolateral and apical transporters for bile acids are thought to be targets of drugs that induce cholestasis. Previously, we constructed polarized LLC-PK1 cells that express both a major bile acid(More)
Various types of stress, such as disruption of calcium homeostasis, inhibition of protein glycosylation and reduction of disulfide bonds, result in accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The initial cellular response involves removal of such proteins by the ER, but excessive and/or long-term stress results in apoptosis. In(More)
The bile salt export pump (BSEP) of hepatocyte secretes conjugated bile salts across the canalicular membrane in an ATP-dependent manner. The biliary bile salts of human differ from those of rat in containing a greater proportion of glycine conjugates and taurolithocholate 3-sulfate (TLC-S). In the present study, the transport properties of hBSEP and rBsep(More)
Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 3/ABCC3 and MRP4/ABCC4 are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters expressed in the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes. The purpose of the present study was to establish organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1/MRP2/MRP3 and OATP1B1/MRP2/MRP4 triple transfectants as in vitro model of the hepatobiliary(More)
The efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), located in the brush-border membrane of intestinal absorptive cells, reduces the bioavailability of a wide range of orally administered drugs. Using P-gp inhibitors in transport experiments in Caco-2 cell monolayers is widely accepted as an efficient way to estimate the contribution of P-gp to the intestinal(More)
When cells are exposed to death-inducing molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha or Fas, caspase 8 is activated and cleaves an apoptotic facilitator, Bid, that is a member of the Bcl-2 family. After additional modification, the C-terminal moiety of Bid is translocated to the mitochondria and induces the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. In(More)
Multidrug resistance-associated protein ABCC2 (MRP2) is widely expressed in mammalian tissues including intestine, liver and kidney, and it has been shown to be located exclusively on the apical membrane of polarized cells. Recently, several reports suggest that apical membrane localization of ABCC2 (Mrp2) was regulated by radixin in rodent liver. To(More)
Double-strand RNA dependent protein kinase (PKR) plays an important role in control of cell death. We previously reported that activation of PKR is associated with hippocampal neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have reported that Parkinson's (PD) and Huntington's (HD) disease brains displayed progressive hippocampal neuronal loss in(More)
Na(+)-taurocholate-cotransporting peptide (NTCP)/SLC10A1 and bile salt export pump (BSEP)/ABCB11 synergistically play an important role in the transport of bile salts by the hepatocyte. In this study, we transfected human NTCP and BSEP or rat Ntcp and Bsep into LLC-PK1 cells, a cell line devoid of bile salts transporters. Transport by these cells was(More)