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BACKGROUND Visual information conveyed through the extrageniculate visual pathway, which runs from the retina via the superior colliculus (SC) and the lateral posterior nucleus (LPN) of the thalamus to the higher visual cortex, plays a critical role in the visual capabilities of many mammalian species. However, its functional role in the higher visual(More)
The spatio-temporal pattern of expression for the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase, Cek8, was observed in normal chick embryos from H-H stage 6 to 23 by immunohistochemical techniques. Expression of Cek8 was already present in embryos at H-H stage 6, where it was located in the neural plate of the brain region, paraxial mesoderm, and the primitive streak.(More)
The lateral suprasylvian visual area (LS) is known to have numerous interconnections with visual cortical areas as well as with subcortical structures implicated in visually-guided behaviors. In contrast, little data is available regarding connections within the LS itself. In order to obtain information about intra-areal connections and to re-investigate LS(More)
The transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) regulate the induction of dopaminergic neurons and are elevated in the CSF of Parkinson's patients. We report here that mice with TGF-beta2 haploinsufficiency (TGF-beta2+/-) have subclinical defects in the dopaminergic neurons of their substantia nigra pars compacta. At 6 weeks of age, the TGF-beta2+/- mice(More)
Retinal projections to the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and accessory optic nuclei (AON) were studied in the postnatal hooded rat after monocular injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into the vitreous chamber of the eye. At all postnatal ages, retinal axons were labeled sensitively; they revealed dense projections to the contralateral, and sparse(More)
We tested the hypothesis that experimentally produced epilepsy (by kindling) may induce changes in GABAA receptor expression in some but not all interneuron populations. Using laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis, GABAA receptor alpha subunit expression in calbindin- (CBir) and parvalbumin- (Parvir)(More)
It is generally known that the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) subserves visuomotor relations between the retina and preoculomotor structures as the only subcortical pathway mediating optokinetic responses (OKR) in mammals. We have examined the projections from the retina and visual cortical areas (areas 17, 18a and 18b) to NOT using tracers (wheat germ(More)
We investigated the thalamostriatal projection of the rat using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) and wheat-germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). To obtain the patch/matrix compartments of the striatum (ST), we used mu-opioid receptor (MOR) immunoreaction labeling. Thus, an MOR-positive 'patch' was indicated by a darkly stained spot, while the(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate morphological characteristics of the synaptic relations of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive terminals that are made with a variety of post-synaptic profiles in the lateralis medialis-suprageniculate nuclear complex (LM-Sg) using ChAT, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate immunohistochemistry in(More)
Maladaptive plasticity at corticostriatal synapses plays an important role in the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. Recently, it has been shown that synaptic plasticity is closely linked to morphologic changes of dendritic spines. To evaluate morphologic changes of dendritic spines of two types of striatal medium spiny neurons, which project to(More)