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The search for unifying properties of complex networks is popular, challenging, and important. For modeling approaches that focus on robustness and fragility as unifying concepts, the Internet is an especially attractive case study, mainly because its applications are ubiquitous and pervasive, and widely available exposition exists at every level of detail.(More)
Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, 1 and 2 besides two known lanostane-type triterpenoids, 3 and 4 were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3beta,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3beta,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. These compounds were tested for their(More)
Although the " scale-free " literature is large and growing, it gives neither a precise definition of scale-free graphs nor rigorous proofs of many of their claimed properties. In fact, it is easily shown that the existing theory has many inherent contradictions and verifiably false claims. In this paper, we propose a new, mathematically precise, and(More)
It has been claimed that protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are scale-free, and that identifying high-degree "hub" proteins reveals important features of PPI networks. In this paper, we evaluate the claims that PPI node degree sequences follow a power law, a necessary condition for networks to be scale-free. We provide two PPI network examples which(More)
Aspergillosis is an important mycosis caused primarily by Aspergillus fumigatus and its relatives. The genus Emericella is a teleomorph related to the Aspergillus section Nidulantes. The typical anamorphic stage species in this genus is Aspergillus nidulans, which is sometimes a significant agent in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients. The(More)
A nationwide survey of indoor air quality in Japan was conducted using four types of diffusive samplers. Gaseous chemical compounds such as carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOC), acid gases, basic gases, and ozone were measured in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer. Four kinds of diffusive samplers were used in(More)
A phylogenetic study based on sequence analysis of the beta-tubulin, hydrophobin and calmodulin genes was performed in 19 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus and related species isolated from clinical specimens in Japan. Correlations between detailed morphology and phylogeny were examined. Species in the section Fumigati were divided into five clades: clade I,(More)
Recent research in biology has clarified many features of the global organization of metabolic networks, including the biochemical mechanisms responsible for power laws in metabolite degrees. The primary aim of this Letter is to give the simplest possible biochemical explanations and minimal toy models based on a highly optimized tolerance perspective,(More)
Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by fibrofolliculomas, renal tumors, and pulmonary cysts with recurrent pneumothorax. Multiple pulmonary cysts and pneumothorax are the key signs for diagnosing BHD syndrome. The pathologic features of BHD pulmonary cysts, however, are poorly understood. This disorder is caused by(More)
One hundred and thirty-nine strains of Cryptococcus neoformans were isolated in Thailand from clinical specimens including 97 AIDS patients: 67 from Northern, 48 from Central, 17 from Northeastern and 7 from Southern regional hospitals. Six out of the 139 strains were serotype B and the remaining 133 were A. There was no correlation between serotypes and(More)