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The search for unifying properties of complex networks is popular, challenging, and important. For modeling approaches that focus on robustness and fragility as unifying concepts, the Internet is an especially attractive case study, mainly because its applications are ubiquitous and pervasive, and widely available exposition exists at every level of detail.(More)
Although the " scale-free " literature is large and growing, it gives neither a precise definition of scale-free graphs nor rigorous proofs of many of their claimed properties. In fact, it is easily shown that the existing theory has many inherent contradictions and verifiably false claims. In this paper, we propose a new, mathematically precise, and(More)
It has been claimed that protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are scale-free, and that identifying high-degree "hub" proteins reveals important features of PPI networks. In this paper, we evaluate the claims that PPI node degree sequences follow a power law, a necessary condition for networks to be scale-free. We provide two PPI network examples which(More)
Recent research in biology has clarified many features of the global organization of metabolic networks, including the biochemical mechanisms responsible for power laws in metabolite degrees. The primary aim of this Letter is to give the simplest possible biochemical explanations and minimal toy models based on a highly optimized tolerance perspective,(More)
Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by fibrofolliculomas, renal tumors, and pulmonary cysts with recurrent pneumothorax. Multiple pulmonary cysts and pneumothorax are the key signs for diagnosing BHD syndrome. The pathologic features of BHD pulmonary cysts, however, are poorly understood. This disorder is caused by(More)
A nationwide survey of indoor air quality in Japan was conducted using four types of diffusive samplers. Gaseous chemical compounds such as carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOC), acid gases, basic gases, and ozone were measured in indoor and outdoor air of 602 houses throughout Japan in winter and summer. Four kinds of diffusive samplers were used in(More)
We previously reported that intragastric administration of cysteine could be beneficial to prevent unweighting-induced ubiquitination and degradation of muscle protein in association with redox regulation [Ikemoto et al., Biol. Chem., 383 (2002), 715-721]. In this study, we investigated whether vitamin E, another potent antioxidative nutrient, also had(More)
Natural resin acids present in rosin of Pinus spez., including isopimaric acid (1), mercusic acid (2), neoabietic acid (3), dehydroabietic acid (4), and podocarpic acid (8), as well as resin acid derivatives 8β,9α,13α-H-tetrahydroabietic acid (5), 8α,9α,13α-H-tetrahydroabietic acid (6), 13α-H-Δ(8)-dihydroabietic acid (7), maleopimaric acid (9), and(More)
We have previously reported that spaceflight and tail suspension enhanced degradation of rat myosin heavy chain (MHC) in association with activation of a ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway [Ikemoto et al., FASEB J. 15 (2001), 1279-1281]. To elucidate whether the ubiquitination is accompanied by oxidative stress, we measured markers for oxidative(More)
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The affected individuals inherit germline mutations in the folliculin gene (FLCN). We investigated the mutation spectrum and clinicopathologic findings of 312 patients from 120 different families (119 Japanese and 1(More)