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The nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2 regions in the rRNA gene were determined by directly sequencing PCR-amplified fragments for all of the species (17 species and five varieties) in the genus Trichosporon. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that six medically relevant species, T. asahii, T. asteroides, T. cutaneum,(More)
Melanin is a recognized virulence factor in Cryptococcus neoformans; several pathogenetic mechanisms have been suggested. We studied melanin as an antifungal resistance factor. The growth of laccase-active strains of C. neoformans and C. albidus in L-DOPA resulted in the production of black pigment. The formal minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of(More)
We determined the sequence of the intergenic spacer (IGS) 1 region, which is located between the 26S and 5S rRNA genes, in 25 species of the genus TRICHOSPORON: IGS 1 sequences varied in length from 195 to 719 bp. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that the divergence of IGS 1 sequences has been greater than that of the internal transcribed spacer(More)
In vitro studies demonstrated that the accumulation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose was reduced in multidrug resistant cell lines. In animal study, it has been suggested that 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) may be a marker for multidrug resistance (MDR). The aim of this clinical study was to compare MDR characteristics by immunohistochemical assay with FDG(More)
Antigenic analysis of the four serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans was carried out by slide agglutination with reciprocal adsorption methods. With this procedure the antigenic patterns of the serotypes were established. Serotypes A and D had antigenic factors 1, 2, 3, 7 and 1, 2, 3, 8, respectively. Serotypes B and C were found to have antigenic factors 1,(More)
An immunohistochemical method for determining the variety of Cryptococcus neoformans in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues was developed using mAbs 471, 302 and CRND8. The method was validated primarily using veterinary patients for which both formalin-fixed lesions and a cultured isolate were available. L-Canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB)(More)
Summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis (SHP) is type III or IV allergies developed by repeated inhalation of arthroconidia of Trichosporon species. We identified 105 strains obtained from the homes of 36 SHP patients by analysis of the intergenic spacer (IGS) 1 region, which is located between the 26S and 5S rRNA genes; in addition, we analyzed the IGS(More)
BACKGROUND Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast that causes cryptococcosis, a life threatening disease. The prevalence of cryptococcosis in Asia has been rising after the onset of the AIDS epidemic and estimates indicate more than 120 cases per 1,000 HIV-infected individuals per year. Almost all cryptococcal disease cases in both immunocompromised(More)
Cryptococcosis is an important fungal disease in Asia with an estimated 140,000 new infections annually the majority of which occurs in patients suffering from HIV/AIDS. Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii (serotype A) is the major causative agent of this disease. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) using the ISHAM MLST consensus(More)
The laccase enzyme and melanin synthesis have been implicated as contributors to virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Since isolations of Cryptococcus species other than C. neoformans from clinical specimens have been increasing, we examined the laccase activities of C. albidus, C. laurentii, C. curvatus, and C. humicola. Incubation of cells with(More)