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Among a superfamily of myosin, class VI myosin moves actin filaments backwards. Here we show that myosin VI moves processively on actin filaments backwards with large ( approximately 36 nm) steps, nevertheless it has an extremely short neck domain. Myosin V also moves processively with large ( approximately 36 nm) steps and it is believed that myosin V(More)
Myosin X is involved in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and protrusion of filopodia. Here we studied the molecular mechanism by which bovine myosin X is regulated. The globular tail domain inhibited the motor activity of myosin X in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. Structural analysis revealed that myosin X is monomeric and that the band(More)
The small GTPase Rho is implicated in cytoskeletal rearrangements including stress fiber and focal adhesion formation and in the transcriptional activation of c-fos serum response element. In vitro, Rho-kinase, which is activated by Rho, phosphorylates not only myosin light chain (MLC) (thereby activating myosin ATPase) but also myosin phosphatase, thus(More)
Mouse myosin V constructs were produced that consisted of the myosin motor domain plus either one IQ motif (M5IQ1), two IQ motifs (M5IQ2), a complete set of six IQ motifs (SHM5), or the complete IQ motifs plus the coiled-coil domain (thus permitting formation of a double-headed structure, DHM5) and expressed in Sf9 cells. The actin-activated ATPase activity(More)
Myosin X is a member of the diverse myosin superfamily that is ubiquitously expressed in various mammalian tissues. Although its association with actin in cells has been shown, little is known about its biochemical and mechanoenzymatic function at the molecular level. We expressed bovine myosin X containing the entire head, neck, and coiled-coil domain and(More)
We succeeded in expressing the recombinant full-length myosin Va (M5Full) and studied its regulation mechanism. The actin-activated ATPase activity of M5Full was significantly activated by Ca(2+), whereas the truncated myosin Va without C-terminal globular domain is not regulated by Ca(2+) and constitutively active. Sedimentation analysis showed that the(More)
It is known that melanophilin is a myosin Va-targeting molecule that links myosin Va and the cargo vesicles in cells. Here we found that melanophilin directly activates the actin-activated ATPase activity of myosin Va and thus its motor activity. The actin-activated ATPase activity of the melanocyte-type myosin Va having exon-F was significantly activated(More)
Class-V myosin proceeds along actin filaments with large ( approximately 36 nm) steps. Myosin-V has two heads, each of which consists of a motor domain and a long (23 nm) neck domain. In accordance with the widely accepted lever-arm model, it was suggested that myosin-V steps to successive (36 nm) target zones along the actin helical repeat by tilting its(More)
Myosin VIIA is an unconventional myosin, responsible for human Usher syndrome type 1B, which causes hearing and visual loss. Here, we studied the molecular mechanism of regulation of myosin VIIA, which is currently unknown. Although it was originally thought that myosin VIIA is a dimeric myosin, our electron microscopic (EM) observations revealed that(More)
There are three distinct members of the myosin V family in vertebrates, and each isoform is involved in different membrane trafficking pathways. Both myosin Va and Vb have demonstrated that they are high duty ratio motors that are consistent with the processive nature of these motors. Here we report that the ATPase cycle mechanism of the single-headed(More)