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Calpains I and II are calcium-dependent proteases that have been implicated in several aspects of brain function, including neurofilament turnover, Wallerian degeneration, and excitatory synaptic transmission. In this study, specific affinity-purified antibodies against each of the enzymes were used to determine their cellular distribution in rat brain.(More)
Glycolipids in a cultured human teratocarcinoma cell line (2102Ep) were investigated. The major glycolipids in these cells are globoseries glycolipids having the following structures: (formula; see text) Synthesis of these structures by serial addition of galactose, fucose, and N-acetylneuraminic acid to globoside (Gb4) in this teratocarcinoma is obvious,(More)
We isolated a cDNA clone encoding mouse N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase based on sequence homology to the previously cloned mouse chondroitin 6-sulfotransferase. The cDNA clone contained an open reading frame that predicts a type II transmembrane protein composed of 483 amino acid residues. The expressed enzyme transferred sulfate to the 6 position(More)
We investigated the molecular species of sulfated sialyl Lewis X determinants, the putative L-selectin ligand, expressed on high endothelial venules (HEV) in human lymph nodes. Comparison of the reactivity pattern of HEV with the reactivity of the pure 6-sulfo, 6'-sulfo, or 6,6'-bissulfo sialyl Lewis X determinant with hitherto known anti-sialyl Lewis X(More)
Galactose-alpha1,3-galactose (alphaGal) epitopes, the synthesis of which requires the enzyme product of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GT), are sugar chains on the cell surface of most mammalian species. Notable exceptions are higher primates including Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. The alphaGal-negative species as well as mice with deletion(More)
The carbohydrate antigen, sialyl Lex, is known to be a ligand for the cell adhesion molecule called ELAM-1 (E-selectin, endothelial cell leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), which is present on cytokine-activated human endothelial cells. Recently, we reported that another carbohydrate antigen, sialyl Lea, can also serve as a ligand for ELAM-1 (A. Takada, K.(More)
Two monoclonal antibodies (MC631 and MC813-70) raised against 4- to 8-cell stage mouse embryos and a human teratocarcinoma cell line, respectively, detect the stage-specific embryonic antigens, the previously defined SSEA-3 and SSEA-4, described herein. These antibodies were both reactive with a unique globo-series ganglioside with the structure shown(More)
Cell adhesion mediated by selectins and their carbohydrate ligands, sialyl Lewis X and sialyl Lewis A, figures heavily in cancer metastasis. Expression of these carbohydrate determinants is markedly enhanced in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that leads to cancer-associated expression of sialyl Lewis X/A has not been well understood. Results of(More)
Specific inhibitors of hyaluronan (HA) biosynthesis can be valuable therapeutic agents to prevent cancer invasion and metastasis. We have found previously that 4-methylumbelliferone (MU) inhibits HA synthesis in human skin fibroblasts and in group C Streptococcus. In this paper, the inhibition mechanism in mammalian cells was investigated using rat 3Y1(More)
L-selectin, a lectin-like receptor, mediates rolling of lymphocytes on high endothelial venules (HEVs) in secondary lymphoid organs by interacting with HEV ligands. These ligands consist of a complex of sialomucins, candidates for which are glycosylation- dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM-1), CD34, and podocalyxin. The ligands must be sialylated,(More)