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To investigate the role of the basal ganglia in working memory and sentence comprehension, 14 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were administered experimental measures of semantic and phonological working memory, and a measure of sentence comprehension, while receiving dopaminergic medications and after a period of withdrawal from these medications. An(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of the transplantation of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), genetically engineered to over-express brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor deficits and neurodegeneration in YAC 128 transgenic mice. MSCs, harvested from mouse femurs, were(More)
BACKGROUND Virtual reality games and simulations have been utilized successfully for motor rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Little is known, however, how TBI-related cognitive decline affects learning of motor tasks in virtual environments. OBJECTIVE To fill this gap, we examined learning within a virtual reality game(More)
Discrepancies between WAIS-III and WMS-III scores for a group of 39 males and 48 females with a history of TBI were examined using three methodologies: Predicted-difference, Simple-difference, and Premorbid-estimation methods. Overall, the Predicted-difference method tended to classify the fewest individuals as impaired based on statistical rarity of(More)
Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are two visual domains affected by normal aging; however, the potential impact of well-documented changes in these abilities on neuropsychological assessment is relatively unstudied. The current study examined the relationship between these abilities and neuropsychological performance in a healthy, community-based(More)
Research has demonstrated a variable relationship between alcohol consumption and self-report personality measures of novelty seeking and harm avoidance. Research has also demonstrated a relationship between performance-based measures of risk taking and substance use. The current study compared the utility of personality measures and performance-based(More)
This study utilized a novel computer-administered measure designed to assess multiple malingering detection strategies, as well as measure genuine impairment in a brain-injured sample. Ninety-four neurologically normal subjects comprised control and simulator groups. Twenty individuals with moderate to severe head injuries comprised a clinical sample. The(More)
Although increased anxiety and cortisol reactivity can disrupt neural activity and impact cognition, little research has evaluated associations between anxiety, cortisol, and performance on neuropsychological instruments. The current study investigated the relationship between exogenous salivary cortisol activity and self-report state anxiety on measures(More)
Despite frequent cautions in the literature concerning the importance of visual acuity in neuropsychological testing, there are few published empirical investigations of what constitutes "sufficient" visual acuity, nor are there published guidelines for performance-based visual screening techniques. The current study attempted to validate the utility of a(More)
The present study evaluated the effects of stress and the ethnicity of the examiner on neuropsychological performance in a sample of Asian-Indian males in the United States. Participants were 60 Asian-Indian college students randomly assigned to one of four conditions in a 2 x 2 factorial design. The first factor was level of stress induction and the second(More)