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P selectin, expressed on surfaces of activated endothelial cells and platelets, is an adhesion receptor for leukocytes. We report that P selectin-deficient mice, generated by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells, exhibit a number of defects in leukocyte behavior, including elevated numbers of circulating neutrophils, virtually total absence of leukocyte(More)
The structure of the 52-amino acid DNA-binding domain of the prokaryotic Hin recombinase, complexed with a DNA recombination half-site, has been solved by x-ray crystallography at 2.3 angstrom resolution. The Hin domain consists of a three-alpha-helix bundle, with the carboxyl-terminal helix inserted into the major groove of DNA, and two flanking extended(More)
The multistep kinetics through which DNA-binding proteins bind their targets are heavily studied, but relatively little attention has been paid to proteins leaving the double helix. Using single-DNA stretching and fluorescence detection, we find that sequence-neutral DNA-binding proteins Fis, HU and NHP6A readily exchange with themselves and with each(More)
The Hin DNA invertase promotes a site-specific DNA recombination reaction in the Salmonella chromosome. The native Hin reaction exhibits overwhelming selectivity for promoting inversions between appropriately oriented recombination sites and requires the Fis regulatory protein, a recombinational enhancer, and a supercoiled DNA substrate. Here, we report a(More)
Transposons are a class of genetic elements that can move from one site in a cell's genome to another independently of the cell's general recombination system. Little is known about the mechanism of transposition of compound transposons such as Tn5, but it is thought that a transposon-encoded protein (a transposase) must recognize the outer ends of the(More)
The Hin protein binds to two cis-acting recombination sites and catalyzes a site-specific DNA inversion reaction that regulates the expression of flagellin genes in Salmonella. In addition to the Hin protein and the two recombination sites that flank the invertible segment, a third cis-acting recombinational enhancer sequence and the Fis protein, which(More)
BACKGROUND Hin is a member of an extended family of site-specific recombinases--the DNA invertase/resolvase family--that catalyze inversion or deletion of DNA. DNA inversion by Hin occurs between two recombination sites and requires the regulatory protein Fis, which associates with a cis-acting recombinational enhancer sequence. Hin recombinase dimers bind(More)
Determining numbers of proteins bound to large DNAs is important for understanding their chromosomal functions. Protein numbers may be affected by physical factors such as mechanical forces generated in DNA, e.g. by transcription or replication. We performed single-DNA stretching experiments with bacterial nucleoid proteins HU and Fis, verifying that the(More)
Flagellar phase variation is mediated by a recombination event that occurs at specific sites leading to inversion of a chromosomal segment of DNA. The presence of a 60 bp recombinational enhancer sequence on the DNA substrate molecule results in a 150-fold stimulation in the initial rate of inversion. The protein components required for inversion have been(More)
RNA polymerase is known to undergo a cycling process during initiation of transcription in vitro in which large amounts of small oligonucleotides are released. We have used this cycling reaction to determine the 5' end of the RNA synthesized from the outer ends of the Tn5 inverted repeats. By analyzing the size of the radiolabeled oligonucleotides(More)